Optimization of barley flour and inulin addition for pasta formulation using mixture design approach.J Food Sci. 2022 Jan; 87(1):68-79.JF
The aim of the present work was to optimize the formulation of a new functional pasta containing durum wheat semolina, whole barley flour, and inulin ingredients to enhance both the technological and textural properties of this product using the mixture design approach. Optimally formulated pasta with acceptable technological and textural properties as close as possible to those of control pasta was studied. The microstructure analysis of cooked and uncooked pasta was performed. Cox response trace plots revealed that the increasing amounts of whole barley flour and durum wheat semolina resulted in an increase in the cooking quality parameters and yellowness. However, pasta firmness was negatively influenced by inulin and whole barley flour addition. The ingredient composition of the optimally formulated pasta, which leads to the best technological and textural properties, was 94.8% durum wheat semolina, 3.7% whole barley flour, and 1.5% inulin. This optimal formulation had an optimal cooking time of 335.24 s, a swelling index of 2.15%, and a cooking loss of 10.44%. The firmness values and the color parameters were also satisfactory. The microstructure of the optimally formulated cooked pasta showed the presence of few not gelatinized starch granules incorporated into the protein matrix as compared to the control pasta. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Three ingredients, durum wheat semolina, whole barley flour, and inulin, were used for the production of new functional pasta using a mixture design approach. The obtained optimally formulated pasta, with good technological and textural properties, was rich in several dietary fibers. This allows the application of whole barley flour and inulin in the cereal industry and can be of interest to the human diet.