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The SARS-CoV-2 mutations versus vaccine effectiveness: New opportunities to new challenges.
J Infect Public Health. 2022 Feb; 15(2):228-240.JI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus epidemic is hastening the discovery of the most efficient vaccines. The development of cost-effective vaccines seems to be the only solution to terminate this pandemic. However, the vaccines' effectiveness has been questioned due to recurrent mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Most of the mutations are associated with the spike protein, a vital target for several marketed vaccines. Many countries were highly affected by the 2nd wave of the SARS-CoV-2, like the UK, India, Brazil and France. Experts are also alarming the further COVID-19 wave with the emergence of Omicron, which is highly affecting the South African populations. This review encompasses the detailed description of all vaccine candidates and COVID-19 mutants that will add value to design further studies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS

The information was generated using various search engines like google scholar, PubMed, clinicaltrial.gov.in, WHO database, ScienceDirect, and news portals by using keywords SARS-CoV-2 mutants, COVID-19 vaccines, efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, COVID-19 waves.

RESULTS

This review has highlighted the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants and the vaccine efficacy. Currently, various vaccine candidates are undergoing several phases of development. Their efficacy still needs to check for newly emerged variants. We have focused on the evolution, multiple mutants, waves of the SARS-CoV-2, and different marketed vaccines undergoing various clinical trials and the design of the trials to determine vaccine efficacy.

CONCLUSION

Various mutants of SARS-CoV-2 arrived, mainly concerned with the spike protein, a key component to design the vaccine candidates. Various vaccines are undergoing clinical trial and show impressive results, but their efficacy still needs to be checked in different SARS-CoV-2 mutants. We discussed all mutants of SARS-CoV-2 and the vaccine's efficacy against them. The safety concern of these vaccines is also discussed. It is important to understand how coronavirus gets mutated to design better new vaccines, providing long-term protection and neutralizing broad mutant variants. A proper study approach also needs to be considered while designing the vaccine efficacy trials, which further improved the study outcomes. Taking preventive measures to protect from the virus is also equally important, like vaccine development.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati, India; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Ropar 140001, India.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad, India.Department of Pharmacology, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati, India.Biotechnology Institute, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia.Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: si.anwar@uoh.edu.sa.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

35042059

Citation

Malik, Jonaid Ahmad, et al. "The SARS-CoV-2 Mutations Versus Vaccine Effectiveness: New Opportunities to New Challenges." Journal of Infection and Public Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2022, pp. 228-240.
Malik JA, Ahmed S, Mir A, et al. The SARS-CoV-2 mutations versus vaccine effectiveness: New opportunities to new challenges. J Infect Public Health. 2022;15(2):228-240.
Malik, J. A., Ahmed, S., Mir, A., Shinde, M., Bender, O., Alshammari, F., Ansari, M., & Anwar, S. (2022). The SARS-CoV-2 mutations versus vaccine effectiveness: New opportunities to new challenges. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 15(2), 228-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.12.014
Malik JA, et al. The SARS-CoV-2 Mutations Versus Vaccine Effectiveness: New Opportunities to New Challenges. J Infect Public Health. 2022;15(2):228-240. PubMed PMID: 35042059.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The SARS-CoV-2 mutations versus vaccine effectiveness: New opportunities to new challenges. AU - Malik,Jonaid Ahmad, AU - Ahmed,Sakeel, AU - Mir,Aroosa, AU - Shinde,Mrunal, AU - Bender,Onur, AU - Alshammari,Farhan, AU - Ansari,Mukhtar, AU - Anwar,Sirajudheen, Y1 - 2022/01/05/ PY - 2021/10/27/received PY - 2021/12/13/revised PY - 2021/12/25/accepted PY - 2022/1/19/pubmed PY - 2022/2/9/medline PY - 2022/1/18/entrez KW - Clinical trials KW - Covid-19 KW - Mutations KW - Vaccine efficacy KW - Variant strains SP - 228 EP - 240 JF - Journal of infection and public health JO - J Infect Public Health VL - 15 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus epidemic is hastening the discovery of the most efficient vaccines. The development of cost-effective vaccines seems to be the only solution to terminate this pandemic. However, the vaccines' effectiveness has been questioned due to recurrent mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Most of the mutations are associated with the spike protein, a vital target for several marketed vaccines. Many countries were highly affected by the 2nd wave of the SARS-CoV-2, like the UK, India, Brazil and France. Experts are also alarming the further COVID-19 wave with the emergence of Omicron, which is highly affecting the South African populations. This review encompasses the detailed description of all vaccine candidates and COVID-19 mutants that will add value to design further studies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The information was generated using various search engines like google scholar, PubMed, clinicaltrial.gov.in, WHO database, ScienceDirect, and news portals by using keywords SARS-CoV-2 mutants, COVID-19 vaccines, efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, COVID-19 waves. RESULTS: This review has highlighted the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants and the vaccine efficacy. Currently, various vaccine candidates are undergoing several phases of development. Their efficacy still needs to check for newly emerged variants. We have focused on the evolution, multiple mutants, waves of the SARS-CoV-2, and different marketed vaccines undergoing various clinical trials and the design of the trials to determine vaccine efficacy. CONCLUSION: Various mutants of SARS-CoV-2 arrived, mainly concerned with the spike protein, a key component to design the vaccine candidates. Various vaccines are undergoing clinical trial and show impressive results, but their efficacy still needs to be checked in different SARS-CoV-2 mutants. We discussed all mutants of SARS-CoV-2 and the vaccine's efficacy against them. The safety concern of these vaccines is also discussed. It is important to understand how coronavirus gets mutated to design better new vaccines, providing long-term protection and neutralizing broad mutant variants. A proper study approach also needs to be considered while designing the vaccine efficacy trials, which further improved the study outcomes. Taking preventive measures to protect from the virus is also equally important, like vaccine development. SN - 1876-035X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/35042059/The_SARS_CoV_2_mutations_versus_vaccine_effectiveness:_New_opportunities_to_new_challenges_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -