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SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Vaccines, and Host Immunity.
Front Immunol. 2021; 12:809244.FI

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new beta coronavirus that emerged at the end of 2019 in the Hubei province of China. SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. Herd or community immunity has been proposed as a strategy to protect the vulnerable, and can be established through immunity from past infection or vaccination. Whether SARS-CoV-2 infection results in the development of a reservoir of resilient memory cells is under investigation. Vaccines have been developed at an unprecedented rate and 7 408 870 760 vaccine doses have been administered worldwide. Recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants are more transmissible with a reduced sensitivity to immune mechanisms. This is due to the presence of amino acid substitutions in the spike protein, which confer a selective advantage. The emergence of variants therefore poses a risk for vaccine effectiveness and long-term immunity, and it is crucial therefore to determine the effectiveness of vaccines against currently circulating variants. Here we review both SARS-CoV-2-induced host immune activation and vaccine-induced immune responses, highlighting the responses of immune memory cells that are key indicators of host immunity. We further discuss how variants emerge and the currently circulating variants of concern (VOC), with particular focus on implications for vaccine effectiveness. Finally, we describe new antibody treatments and future vaccine approaches that will be important as we navigate through the COVID-19 pandemic.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Immunology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) Extramural Unit for Stem Cell Research and Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.Department of Immunology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) Extramural Unit for Stem Cell Research and Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.Department of Immunology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) Extramural Unit for Stem Cell Research and Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.Department of Immunology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) Extramural Unit for Stem Cell Research and Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.Department of Immunology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) Extramural Unit for Stem Cell Research and Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.Department of Immunology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) Extramural Unit for Stem Cell Research and Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.James and Lillian Martin Centre, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan. Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Department of Immunology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) Extramural Unit for Stem Cell Research and Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

35046961

Citation

Mistry, Priyal, et al. "SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Vaccines, and Host Immunity." Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 12, 2021, p. 809244.
Mistry P, Barmania F, Mellet J, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Vaccines, and Host Immunity. Front Immunol. 2021;12:809244.
Mistry, P., Barmania, F., Mellet, J., Peta, K., Strydom, A., Viljoen, I. M., James, W., Gordon, S., & Pepper, M. S. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Vaccines, and Host Immunity. Frontiers in Immunology, 12, 809244. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.809244
Mistry P, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Vaccines, and Host Immunity. Front Immunol. 2021;12:809244. PubMed PMID: 35046961.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Vaccines, and Host Immunity. AU - Mistry,Priyal, AU - Barmania,Fatima, AU - Mellet,Juanita, AU - Peta,Kimberly, AU - Strydom,Adéle, AU - Viljoen,Ignatius M, AU - James,William, AU - Gordon,Siamon, AU - Pepper,Michael S, Y1 - 2022/01/03/ PY - 2021/11/04/received PY - 2021/11/29/accepted PY - 2022/1/20/entrez PY - 2022/1/21/pubmed PY - 2022/1/27/medline KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - coronavirus KW - immunity KW - spike protein KW - vaccines KW - variants of concern SP - 809244 EP - 809244 JF - Frontiers in immunology JO - Front Immunol VL - 12 N2 - Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new beta coronavirus that emerged at the end of 2019 in the Hubei province of China. SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. Herd or community immunity has been proposed as a strategy to protect the vulnerable, and can be established through immunity from past infection or vaccination. Whether SARS-CoV-2 infection results in the development of a reservoir of resilient memory cells is under investigation. Vaccines have been developed at an unprecedented rate and 7 408 870 760 vaccine doses have been administered worldwide. Recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants are more transmissible with a reduced sensitivity to immune mechanisms. This is due to the presence of amino acid substitutions in the spike protein, which confer a selective advantage. The emergence of variants therefore poses a risk for vaccine effectiveness and long-term immunity, and it is crucial therefore to determine the effectiveness of vaccines against currently circulating variants. Here we review both SARS-CoV-2-induced host immune activation and vaccine-induced immune responses, highlighting the responses of immune memory cells that are key indicators of host immunity. We further discuss how variants emerge and the currently circulating variants of concern (VOC), with particular focus on implications for vaccine effectiveness. Finally, we describe new antibody treatments and future vaccine approaches that will be important as we navigate through the COVID-19 pandemic. SN - 1664-3224 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/35046961/SARS_CoV_2_Variants_Vaccines_and_Host_Immunity_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -