Humoral immunogenicity and tolerability of heterologous ChAd/BNT compared with homologous BNT/BNT and ChAd/ChAd SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in hemodialysis patients : A multicenter prospective observational study.J Nephrol. 2022 06; 35(5):1467-1478.JN
After the reports of severe adverse reactions to the AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine, patients who had received one dose of ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine were recommended a second dose of Pfizer's BNT162b2 vaccine. In hemodialysis patients, we compared the humoral immunogenicity and tolerability of homologous vaccination with ChAdOx1-nCoV-19/ChAdOx1-nCoV-19 (ChAd/ChAd) and BNT162b2/BNT162b2 (BNT/BNT) with heterologous vaccination of first dose of ChAdOx1-nCoV-19 and a second dose with BNT162b2 (ChAd/BNT).
In a multicenter prospective observational study, SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG antibody levels, Nucleocapsid-protein-IgG-antibodies, and vaccine tolerability were assessed 6 weeks after second SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in 137 hemodialysis patients and 24 immunocompetent medical personnel.
In COVID-19-naïve hemodialysis patients, significantly higher median SARS-CoV-2-spike IgG levels were found after ChAd/BNT (N = 16) compared to BNT/BNT (N = 100) or ChAd/ChAd (N = 10) (1744 [25th-75th percentile 276-2840] BAU/mL versus 361 [25th-75th percentile 120-936] BAU/mL; p = 0.009; 1744 [25th-75th percentile 276-2840] BAU/mL versus 100 [25th-75th percentile 41-346] BAU/mL; p = 0.017, respectively). Vaccinated, COVID-19-naïve medical personnel had median SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG levels of 650 (25th-75th percentile 217-1402) BAU/mL and vaccinated hemodialysis patients with prior COVID-19 7047 (25th-75th percentile 685-10,794) BAU/mL (N = 11). In multivariable regression analysis, heterologous vaccination (ChAd/BNT) of COVID-19-naïve hemodialysis patients was independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG levels. The first dose of ChAd and the second dose of BNT after the first vaccination with ChAd (heterologous vaccination, ChAd/BNT) were associated with more frequent but manageable side effects compared with homologous BNT.
Within the limitations of this study, heterologous vaccination with ChAd/BNT appears to induce stronger humoral immunity and more frequent but manageable side effects than homologous vaccination with BNT/BNT or with ChAd/ChAd in COVID-19-naïve hemodialysis patients.