An Epidemiologic Analysis of Associations between County-Level Per Capita Income, Unemployment Rate, and COVID-19 Vaccination Rates in the United States.Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Feb 03; 19(3)IJ
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine associations between per capita income, unemployment rates, and COVID-19 vaccination rates at the county-level across the United States (U.S.), as well as to identify the interaction effects between county-level per capita income, unemployment rates, and racial/ethnic composition on COVID-19 vaccination rates. All counties in the U.S. that reported COVID-19 vaccination rates from January 2021 to July 2021 were included in this longitudinal study (n = 2857). Pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) with fixed-effects were employed to longitudinally examine economic impacts on racial/ethnic disparities on county-level COVID-19 vaccination rates. County-level per capita income and county-level unemployment rates were both positively associated with county-level COVID-19 vaccination rates across the U.S. However, the associations were divergent in the context of race/ethnicity. Public health efforts to bolster COVID-19 vaccination rates are encouraged to consider economic factors that are associated with decreases in COVID-19 vaccination rates.