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An Epidemiologic Analysis of Associations between County-Level Per Capita Income, Unemployment Rate, and COVID-19 Vaccination Rates in the United States.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Feb 03; 19(3)IJ

Abstract

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine associations between per capita income, unemployment rates, and COVID-19 vaccination rates at the county-level across the United States (U.S.), as well as to identify the interaction effects between county-level per capita income, unemployment rates, and racial/ethnic composition on COVID-19 vaccination rates. All counties in the U.S. that reported COVID-19 vaccination rates from January 2021 to July 2021 were included in this longitudinal study (n = 2857). Pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) with fixed-effects were employed to longitudinally examine economic impacts on racial/ethnic disparities on county-level COVID-19 vaccination rates. County-level per capita income and county-level unemployment rates were both positively associated with county-level COVID-19 vaccination rates across the U.S. However, the associations were divergent in the context of race/ethnicity. Public health efforts to bolster COVID-19 vaccination rates are encouraged to consider economic factors that are associated with decreases in COVID-19 vaccination rates.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Social Work, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28262, USA. School of Data Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28262, USA.Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28262, USA.Public Policy Program, College of Arts and Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28262, USA.Department of Social Work, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35222, USA. Department of Health Behavior, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35222, USA. Center for AIDS Research, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35222, USA. African American Studies, College of Arts and Science, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35222, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

35162778

Citation

Guo, Yuqi, et al. "An Epidemiologic Analysis of Associations Between County-Level Per Capita Income, Unemployment Rate, and COVID-19 Vaccination Rates in the United States." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 19, no. 3, 2022.
Guo Y, Kaniuka AR, Gao J, et al. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Associations between County-Level Per Capita Income, Unemployment Rate, and COVID-19 Vaccination Rates in the United States. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(3).
Guo, Y., Kaniuka, A. R., Gao, J., & Sims, O. T. (2022). An Epidemiologic Analysis of Associations between County-Level Per Capita Income, Unemployment Rate, and COVID-19 Vaccination Rates in the United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031755
Guo Y, et al. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Associations Between County-Level Per Capita Income, Unemployment Rate, and COVID-19 Vaccination Rates in the United States. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Feb 3;19(3) PubMed PMID: 35162778.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An Epidemiologic Analysis of Associations between County-Level Per Capita Income, Unemployment Rate, and COVID-19 Vaccination Rates in the United States. AU - Guo,Yuqi, AU - Kaniuka,Andrea R, AU - Gao,Jingjing, AU - Sims,Omar T, Y1 - 2022/02/03/ PY - 2021/12/16/received PY - 2022/01/28/revised PY - 2022/01/28/accepted PY - 2022/2/15/entrez PY - 2022/2/16/pubmed PY - 2022/2/19/medline KW - COVID-19 vaccination rates KW - per capita income KW - race/ethnicity KW - racial disparities KW - unemployment rate JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 19 IS - 3 N2 - The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine associations between per capita income, unemployment rates, and COVID-19 vaccination rates at the county-level across the United States (U.S.), as well as to identify the interaction effects between county-level per capita income, unemployment rates, and racial/ethnic composition on COVID-19 vaccination rates. All counties in the U.S. that reported COVID-19 vaccination rates from January 2021 to July 2021 were included in this longitudinal study (n = 2857). Pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) with fixed-effects were employed to longitudinally examine economic impacts on racial/ethnic disparities on county-level COVID-19 vaccination rates. County-level per capita income and county-level unemployment rates were both positively associated with county-level COVID-19 vaccination rates across the U.S. However, the associations were divergent in the context of race/ethnicity. Public health efforts to bolster COVID-19 vaccination rates are encouraged to consider economic factors that are associated with decreases in COVID-19 vaccination rates. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/35162778/An_Epidemiologic_Analysis_of_Associations_between_County_Level_Per_Capita_Income_Unemployment_Rate_and_COVID_19_Vaccination_Rates_in_the_United_States_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph19031755 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -