Gallic Acid Mitigates 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation while Enhancing or Preserving Browning and Antioxidant Activity Development in Glucose/Arginine and Sucrose/Arginine Maillard Model Systems.Molecules. 2022 Jan 27; 27(3)M
The current trend of lowering 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) dietary exposure is challenging since its formation is parallel with the development of food color, flavor and aroma. We aimed to investigate the effect of gallic acid (GA) addition on 5-HMF formation, color development and antioxidant activity (AA) in a series of Maillard Reaction (MR) model systems. The effects of GA addition on browning and AA development were not uniform for all model systems, but always occurred in the same direction, indicating that these phenomena were interconnected. GA mitigated 5-HMF development in four of the nine tested systems, possibly by preventing the oxidation of MR intermediates. Correlation analysis indicated that when GA addition mitigated 5-HMF formation, browning was either promoted or not affected. The proposed strategy was effective for glucose/arginine and sucrose/arginine systems, since GA mitigated 5-HMF formation (49% and 54%, respectively) in addition to increasing color development and antioxidant activity.