Preparation and characterization of intelligent packaging film for visual inspection of tilapia fillets freshness using cyanidin and bacterial cellulose.Int J Biol Macromol. 2022 Apr 30; 205:357-365.IJ
An intelligent pH-sensitive film was developed by incorporating cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) into bacterial cellulose (BC), and its application as a freshness indicator for tilapia fillets was investigated. The physical properties of the film were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results demonstrated the mechanical properties of the film were significantly changed due to higher crystallinity induced by C3G. XRD and FTIR analysis showed the increased crystallinity and transmittance intensity of the BC-C3G film. Moreover, this film exhibited distinctive color changes from red to green when exposed to buffers with a pH of 3 to 10. In accordance with changes in total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and total viable count (TVC) of tilapia fillets, the indicator demonstrated visualized color changes as rose-red (fresh), purple (still suitable), and lavender (spoiled) during storage at both 25 °C and 4 °C. The results suggest that this film has great potential to be used as an intelligent indicator to monitor the freshness of fish.