Identification of Non-Volatile Compounds That Impact Flavor Disliking of Whole Wheat Bread Made with Aged Flours.Molecules. 2022 Feb 16; 27(4)M
Whole wheat flour has a shorter shelf life than refined wheat flour due to off-flavor development. An untargeted liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) flavoromics approach was applied to identify compounds that negatively impact the flavor liking in whole wheat bread made from aged flours. The chemical profiles of thirteen breads made from aged flours were obtained using LC/MS and modeled by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) to predict flavor liking. Top predictive chemical features (negatively correlated) were identified as pinellic acid (9S,12S,13S-trihydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid), 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid, and 1-(9Z,12Z-octadecadienoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The sensory analysis confirmed the three compounds increased the bitterness intensity of the bread samples. The formation of the trihydroxy fatty acid bitter compound, pinellic acid (9S,12S,13S-trihydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid), was impacted by the lipoxygenase activity of the flour; however, there was no influence on the formation of 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid or 1-(9Z,12Z-octadecadienoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Additionally, the concentrations of all bitter compounds were significantly higher in bread made from aged flour versus non-aged flour.