Impact of progesterone on the gastrointestinal tract: a comprehensive literature review.Climacteric. 2022 08; 25(4):337-361.C
Women are more prone to gastrointestinal symptoms than men. A comprehensive literature search was performed to assess the impact of sex steroid hormone, especially progesterone, on the (healthy and diseased) gastrointestinal tract. Overall, 37 articles were identified. Based on these we conclude that progesterone has a dose-dependent and sex-dependent effect on gastric emptying (especially in mammals), slows down gastrointestinal motility, reduces the gallbladder's response to contractile stimulants, may support gastroesophageal reflux by reducing the esophageal sphincter pressure, may protect from Helicobacter pylori infection gastrointestinal sequelae (especially in mammals) and does not affect inflammatory bowel disease-specific symptoms. However, for several gastrointestinal symptoms and diseases no studies have yet been performed addressing the impact of sex hormone steroids.