Differential Experiences of Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Intimate Partner Violence Among Transgender and Gender Diverse Adults.J Interpers Violence. 2022 12; 37(23-24):NP23281-NP23305.JI
Various forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) are unfortunately common amongst adults in the United States, and these rates are devastatingly higher for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals than for the general population. However, the TGD population is not monolithic, and is diverse regarding gender, sexual orientation, age, race/ethnicity, urbanicity, and other sociodemographic categories. This study uses data from the 2018 Michigan Trans Health Survey to explore these within group differences regarding sexual, physical, and emotional forms of IPV using chi-square tests of independence and logistic regressions. Chi square tests of independence found homelessness had significant associations across all outcome variables: "ever experienced physical violence from a partner," "ever experienced forced sex from a partner," "ever been threatened to be outed by a partner," and "ever had gender belittled by a partner." Gender identity and sexual orientation had significant associations with "ever experienced forced sex from a partner," "ever been threatened to be outed by a partner," and "ever had gender belittled by a partner." Urbanicity showed a significant association with "ever being threatened to be outed by a partner." In the logistic regressions, age indicated significantly higher likelihood of IPV physical IPV with each year of age; experiences of homelessness were significantly related to likelihood for all outcomes variables. Gender and sexual orientation were also significant across the models, with differing levels of likeliness depending on identities. Findings demonstrate a need for TGD inclusive programming, and specifically programs that target TGD persons who are older, report additional genders (meaning, multiple identities and/or identities besides transfeminine, transmasculine, or nonbinary), queer sexual orientations, and who are/have experienced homelessness. Programs are needed both in the realms of intimate partner violence prevention work and social services that support survivors of violence, such as mental health clinics, rape crisis centers, and shelters.