Defining Amaranth, Buckwheat and Quinoa Flour Levels in Gluten-Free Bread: A Simultaneous Improvement on Physical Properties, Acceptability and Nutrient Composition through Mixture Design.Foods. 2022 Mar 16; 11(6)F
The study aimed to define the ideal proportions of pseudocereal flours (PF) in sensory-accepted gluten-free bread (GFB) formulations. The characteristics of GFB developed with PF (amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa) were verified through a mixture design and response surface methodology. Three simplex-centroid designs were studied to analyze the effects of each PF and their interactions with potato starch (PS), and rice flour (RF) on GFB's physical and sensory characteristics, each design producing three single, three binary and six ternary GFB formulations. Results showed that using PF alone resulted in unacceptable GFB. However, the interactions between PF and RF improved the loaf specific volume and the crumb softness and also enhanced appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor, and overall liking. Moreover, the composite formulations prepared with 50% PF and 50% RF (flour basis) presented physical properties and acceptability scores like those of white GFB, prepared with 100% RF or a 50% RF + 50% PS blend (flour basis). Maximum proportions of PF to obtain well-accepted GFB (scores ≥7 for all evaluated attributes on a 10-cm hybrid hedonic scale) were defined at 60% for amaranth flour (AF), 85% for buckwheat flour (BF), and 82% for quinoa flour (QF) in blends with RF.