Physiology and pathophysiology of skeletal muscle contractions. Part I. Dynamic activity.J Oral Rehabil 1986; 13(5):451-61JO
An overview is presented of the physiology and pathophysiology of dynamic skeletal muscle contractions in the intact living organism. Dynamic muscle activities are divided into concentric contractions with shortening of muscle fibres and the production of positive work, and eccentric contractions with lengthening of muscle fibres and the production of negative work. In positive work, muscle tension overcomes external forces. In negative work, external forces overcome muscle tension. The latter phenomenon, with relatively few active motor units, explains the injuries induced by eccentric contractions. Both the contractile and non-contractile elements are involved in the muscle injuries and, clinically, they are referred to as myofibrositis.