S-Allyl cysteine in garlic (Allium sativum): Formation, biofunction, and resistance to food processing for value-added product development.Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2022 05; 21(3):2665-2687.CR
S-allyl cysteine (SAC), which is the most abundant bioactive compound in black garlic (BG; Allium sativum), has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Sulfur compounds are the most distinctive bioactive elements in garlic. Previous studies have provided evidence that the concentration of SAC in fresh garlic is in the range of 19.0-1736.3 μg/g. Meanwhile, for processed garlic, such as frozen and thawed garlic, pickled garlic, fermented garlic extract, and BG, the SAC content increased to up to 8021.2 μg/g. BG is an SAC-containing product, with heat treatment being used in nearly all methods of BG production. Therefore, strategies to increase the SAC level in garlic are of great interest; however, further knowledge is required about the effect of processing factors and mechanistic changes. This review explains the formation of SAC in garlic, introduces its biological effects, and summarizes the recent advances in processing methods that can affect SAC levels in garlic, including heat treatment, enzymatic treatment, freezing, fermentation, ultrasonic treatment, and high hydrostatic pressure. Thus, the aim of this review was to summarize the outcomes of treatment aimed at maintaining or increasing SAC levels in BG. Therefore, publications from scientific databases in this field of study were examined. The effects of processing methods on SAC compounds were evaluated on the basis of the SAC content. This review provides information on the processing approaches that can assist food manufacturers in the development of value-added garlic products.