Knockout of OsNRAMP5 enhances rice tolerance to cadmium toxicity in response to varying external cadmium concentrations via distinct mechanisms.Sci Total Environ. 2022 Aug 01; 832:155006.ST
OsNRAMP5 is a transporter responsible for cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn) uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Mn in rice plants. Knockout of OsNRAMP5 is regarded as an effective approach to minimize Cd uptake and accumulation in rice. It is vital to evaluate the effects of knocking out OsNRAMP5 on Cd and Mn accumulation, as well as Cd tolerance of rice plants in response to varying environmental Cd concentrations, and to uncover the underlying mechanism, which until now, has remained largely unexplored. This study showed that knockout of OsNRAMP5 decreased Cd uptake, but simultaneously facilitated Cd translocation from roots to shoots. The effect of OsNRAMP5 knockout on reducing root Cd uptake weakened, however its effect on improving root-to-shoot Cd translocation was constant with increasing environmental Cd concentrations. As a result, its mutation dramatically reduced Cd accumulation in shoots under low and moderate Cd stress, but inversely increased that under high Cd conditions. Interestingly, Cd tolerance of its knockout mutants was persistently enhanced, irrespective of lower or higher Cd concentrations in shoots, compared with that of wild-type plants. Knockout of OsNRAMP5 mitigated Cd toxicity by dramatically diminishing Cd uptake at low or moderate external Cd concentrations. Remarkably, its knockout effectively complemented deficient mineral nutrients in shoots, thereby indirectly enhancing rice tolerance to severe Cd stress. Additionally, its mutation conferred preferential delivery of Mn to young leaves and grains. These results have important implications for the application of the OsNRAMP5 mutation in mitigating Cd toxicity and lowering the risk of excessive Cd accumulation in rice grains.