Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in the soil invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta).Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2022 May 01; 236:113485.EE
The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicokinetics-toxicodynamics (TKTD) of Cu and Cd in the soil model organism Enchytraeus crypticus, and assess the development of internal effect concentrations over time. Animals were exposed in LUFA 2.2 soil spiked with increasing concentrations of Cu and Cd. Survival, reproduction and internal metal concentrations in the animals were evaluated at different points in time over a period of 21 days. Internal concentrations increased with time, for Cu reaching a steady state after c. 10 days, except for the highest test concentration, and for Cd continuing to increase after 21 days. Applying a one-compartment model to all data together, estimated uptake and elimination rate constants for Cu and Cd were 0.08 and 0.45 kg soil/kg organism/day and 0.4 and 0.04 per day, respectively. Median lethal concentrations, based on total soil concentrations, decreased with time for Cu and did not reach a steady state level, but they did not change with time for Cd. The LC50inter (based on internal concentrations) was 75 mg Cu/kg body DW and > 800 mg Cd/kg body weight. Animals were able to regulate Cu internal concentrations, keeping them low, while for Cd internal concentrations continued to increase showing lack of regulation and also the importance of exposure time. This study highlights the advantages of using a TKTD approach to understand the relation between organism survival and internal Cu or Cd concentrations over time.