[Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Farmland Soils Around Mining Areas and Pollution Assessment].Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2022 Apr 08; 43(4):2104-2114.HJ
In order to explore the spatial distribution and ecological risk of heavy metals in farmland soil around Tongguan Mining area, surface soil samples from Tongguan Mining area were collected in September 2020, and the contents and distribution characteristics of eight heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, and As) in the samples were analyzed. The Nemerow comprehensive pollution index and potential ecological risk index were used to evaluate soil pollution. The results showed that the contents of the eight types of heavy metal elements in this area exceeded the standard, and the exceeding rates were 97.91%, 84.79%, 100%, 95.41%, 96.87%, 98.54%, 91.45%, and 28.95%, respectively. The variation coefficients of the eight heavy metals were ranked as Hg>Pb>Cu>Cd>Zn>As>Ni>Cr. The variation coefficients of Hg, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn were all greater than 1. Correlation analysis showed that these five heavy metals were obviously correlated. In terms of spatial distribution, Pb, Cd, Cu, Hg, Zn, and As were distributed in patches, whereas Cr and Ni were distributed in flakes. The high values of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn were mainly distributed in the southern and central part of the study area. The comprehensive pollution of Nemerow showed that the severe pollution rate reached 87.91%, and the moderate pollution rate and the mild pollution rate were 9.58% and 2.5%, respectively; thus, the overall pollution was severe. The potential ecological risk index showed that Hg, Cd, Pb, and Cu were the main risk elements. The total potential ecological risk index showed that the proportion of samples with strong pollution was 97.08%, and the proportion of extremely strongly, very strongly, and strongly polluted samples were 55.63%, 27.08%, and 14.37%, respectively, indicating that the overall potential ecological risk in the study area was very strong. Combining the two pollution assessment methods, it can be seen that the heavy metal pollution around Tongguan mining area, primarily by Hg, Cd, and Pb, was serious. These results can provide data support for regional pollution control, soil remediation, and ecological protection. It is suggested that the state of soil heavy metal pollution and its transformation in various media should be monitored continuously in the future.