Mechanical stability of fully personalized, abutment-free zirconia implant crowns on a novel implant-crown interface.J Dent. 2022 06; 121:104121.JD
To test the failure load and failure mode of a novel implant-crown interface specifically designed for the fabrication of fully personalized, abutment-free monolithic zirconia CAD-CAM crowns compared to conventional implant-abutment interfaces involving prefabricated or centrally manufactured abutments for zirconia CAD-CAM crowns.
Implants (N=48) were divided into groups (n=12) according to different implant-abutment interface designs: (1) internal implant connection with personalized, abutment-free CAD-CAM crowns (Abut-Free-Zr), (2) internal conical connection with customized, centrally manufactured zirconia CAD-CAM abutments (Cen-Abut-Zr), (3) prefabricated titanium base abutments from manufacturer 1 (Ti-Base-1), (4) additional prefabricated titanium base abutments from manufacturer 2 (Ti-Base-2). All specimens were restored with a screw-retained monolithic zirconia CAD-CAM molar crown and subjected to thermomechanical aging (1.200.000 cycles, 49 N, 1.67 Hz, 30° angulation, thermocycling 5-50°C). Static load until failure was applied in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were analyzed descriptively under digital microscope. Mean failure load values were statistically analyzed at a significance level of p<0.05.
All specimens survived thermomechanical aging. The mean failure loads varied between 1332 N (Abut-Free-Zr) and 1601 N (Ti-Base-2), difference being significant between these groups (p<0.05). No differences between the other groups were seen. The predominant failure mode per group was crown fracture above implant connection (Abut-Free-Zr, 75%), abutment fracture below implant neck (Cen-Abut-Zr, 83%), crown fracture leaving an intact abutment (Ti-Base-1/Ti-Base-2 100%).
Implant-crown interface with fully personalized, abutment-free monolithic CAD-CAM zirconia crowns exhibited similar failure loads as conventional implant-abutment interfaces (except group Ti-Base-2) involving CAD-CAM crowns with prefabricated or centrally manufactured abutment.
The new implant connection simplifies the digital workflow for all-ceramic implant reconstructions. The specific design of the implant-crown interface allows the fabrication of fully personalized, abutment-free zirconia implant crowns both in-house and in-laboratory without the need of a prefabricated abutment or central manufacturing.