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The Effect of Australian and Asian Commercial Antivenoms in Reversing the Post-Synaptic Neurotoxicity of O. hannah, N. naja and N. kaouthia Venoms In Vitro.
Toxins (Basel). 2022 04 13; 14(4)T

Abstract

Despite antivenoms being the only established specific treatment for neuromuscular paralysis arising from snake envenoming, their ability to reverse the post-synaptic neurotoxicity in snake envenoming is poorly understood. We investigated the ability of five commercial antivenoms i.e., King cobra monovalent, Thai cobra monovalent, Thai neuro polyvalent, Indian polyvalent and Australian polyvalent antivenoms to reverse neurotoxicity induced by the venoms of King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah, 3 µg/mL), Indian cobra (Naja naja, 5 µg/mL) and Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia, 3 µg/mL) using the in vitro chick-biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. All three venoms displayed post-synaptic neurotoxicity, which was prevented by all tested antivenoms (40 µL/mL) added to the bath prior to venom. All antivenoms partially reversed the established post-synaptic neuromuscular block after the addition of the three venoms during a 180 min observation period, but to varying degrees and at different rates. The neurotoxic effects of O. hannah venom recovered to a greater magnitude (based on twitch height restoration) and faster than the neurotoxicity of N. kaouthia venom, which recovered to a lower magnitude more slowly. The recovery of post-synaptic neurotoxicity by N. naja venom was hindered due to the likely presence of cytotoxins in the venom, which cause direct muscle damage. The observations made in this study provide further evidence that the commercial antivenoms are likely to actively reverse established α-neurotoxin-mediated neuromuscular paralysis in snake envenoming, and there is cross-neutralisation with different antivenoms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2298, Australia.Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Anuradhapura 50008, Sri Lanka.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

35448886

Citation

Huynh, Tam M., et al. "The Effect of Australian and Asian Commercial Antivenoms in Reversing the Post-Synaptic Neurotoxicity of O. Hannah, N. Naja and N. Kaouthia Venoms in Vitro." Toxins, vol. 14, no. 4, 2022.
Huynh TM, Hodgson WC, Isbister GK, et al. The Effect of Australian and Asian Commercial Antivenoms in Reversing the Post-Synaptic Neurotoxicity of O. hannah, N. naja and N. kaouthia Venoms In Vitro. Toxins (Basel). 2022;14(4).
Huynh, T. M., Hodgson, W. C., Isbister, G. K., & Silva, A. (2022). The Effect of Australian and Asian Commercial Antivenoms in Reversing the Post-Synaptic Neurotoxicity of O. hannah, N. naja and N. kaouthia Venoms In Vitro. Toxins, 14(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14040277
Huynh TM, et al. The Effect of Australian and Asian Commercial Antivenoms in Reversing the Post-Synaptic Neurotoxicity of O. Hannah, N. Naja and N. Kaouthia Venoms in Vitro. Toxins (Basel). 2022 04 13;14(4) PubMed PMID: 35448886.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Effect of Australian and Asian Commercial Antivenoms in Reversing the Post-Synaptic Neurotoxicity of O. hannah, N. naja and N. kaouthia Venoms In Vitro. AU - Huynh,Tam M, AU - Hodgson,Wayne C, AU - Isbister,Geoffrey K, AU - Silva,Anjana, Y1 - 2022/04/13/ PY - 2022/03/23/received PY - 2022/04/08/revised PY - 2022/04/11/accepted PY - 2022/4/21/entrez PY - 2022/4/22/pubmed PY - 2022/4/26/medline KW - antivenom KW - neuromuscular KW - neurotoxin KW - postsynaptic KW - skeletal muscle KW - snake JF - Toxins JO - Toxins (Basel) VL - 14 IS - 4 N2 - Despite antivenoms being the only established specific treatment for neuromuscular paralysis arising from snake envenoming, their ability to reverse the post-synaptic neurotoxicity in snake envenoming is poorly understood. We investigated the ability of five commercial antivenoms i.e., King cobra monovalent, Thai cobra monovalent, Thai neuro polyvalent, Indian polyvalent and Australian polyvalent antivenoms to reverse neurotoxicity induced by the venoms of King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah, 3 µg/mL), Indian cobra (Naja naja, 5 µg/mL) and Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia, 3 µg/mL) using the in vitro chick-biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. All three venoms displayed post-synaptic neurotoxicity, which was prevented by all tested antivenoms (40 µL/mL) added to the bath prior to venom. All antivenoms partially reversed the established post-synaptic neuromuscular block after the addition of the three venoms during a 180 min observation period, but to varying degrees and at different rates. The neurotoxic effects of O. hannah venom recovered to a greater magnitude (based on twitch height restoration) and faster than the neurotoxicity of N. kaouthia venom, which recovered to a lower magnitude more slowly. The recovery of post-synaptic neurotoxicity by N. naja venom was hindered due to the likely presence of cytotoxins in the venom, which cause direct muscle damage. The observations made in this study provide further evidence that the commercial antivenoms are likely to actively reverse established α-neurotoxin-mediated neuromuscular paralysis in snake envenoming, and there is cross-neutralisation with different antivenoms. SN - 2072-6651 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/35448886/The_Effect_of_Australian_and_Asian_Commercial_Antivenoms_in_Reversing_the_Post_Synaptic_Neurotoxicity_of_O__hannah_N__naja_and_N__kaouthia_Venoms_In_Vitro_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -