Sporadic adult-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease without high-intensity signal on DWI and T2WI: a case report.BMC Neurol. 2022 Apr 22; 22(1):150.BN
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions in cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. High-intensity signal in the corticomedullary junction on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is supportive to the diagnosis of NIID. We describe a patient with sporadic adult-onset NIID but without any high-intensity signal on DWI and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI).
A 58-year-old woman without special family history developed mild persistent tremor in the right hand and deteriorated 2 years later. At 60 years of age, the patient began to conceive the bank, police and internet being deceptive, further presented apathy and confusion after two and a half years, as well as fabrication of non-existent things. Despite the treatment of antipsychotic drugs due to a diagnosis of mental disorder, the patient appeared weakness in the right limbs. Neurological examination revealed mutism, resting tremor, cogwheel-like rigidity in upper limbs, and weakness in all limbs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging displayed no cerebral atrophy initially but atrophy of frontal, temporal and parietal lobes 5 years later. No any high-intensity signal on DWI and T2WI was revealed. However, hypometabolism in the cortexes with atrophy and the right putamen nucleus were showed on 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance. On the basis of 107 GGC repeats (normal number <40) in NOTCH2NLC gene and intranuclear inclusions with p62 immunoreactivity in the adipocyte of cutaneous sweat duct by skin biopsy, NIID was finally diagnosed. The symptomatic treatment was given but the patient had no evident improvement.
Our case highlights that despite the lack of high-intensity signal on DWI and T2WI, NIID is still considered for patients with parkinsonism and mental impairment.