Predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among health professions students in Vietnam.BMC Public Health. 2022 04 28; 22(1):854.BP
The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy or refusal has actually been a threat to global health. In the current situation, health professions students are at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection during their internship at healthcare facilities. Furthermore, those future healthcare workers will advise people to accept the COVID-19 vaccination. Therefore, the attitude of students towards vaccine acceptance and the predicting factors needs to be elucidated. This study applied the Health Belief Model to determine predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among health professions students.
Nine hundred eleven students participated in a cross-sectional online survey in Vietnam. Data were collected from 1st April to 30th June 2021. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 20.0 with Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests before executing multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of the COVID-19 vaccine acceptability RESULTS: The overall vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and refusal rates were 58% (95% CI: 54.7% - 61.3%), 40.4% (95% CI: 37.2% - 43.7%) and 1.5% (95% CI: 0.8% - 2.6%), respectively. Regarding vaccination hesitancy, a predictor such as "Receiving recent flu shots" had a negative correlation, whereas "Vaccines have little efficacy & serious adverse effects" (Perceived barriers), nationality, and majors were positive correlates. For refusal, "Unvaccinated students feasibly infected COVID-19 during hospital internship" (Perceived susceptibility) was a negative correlate. For predicting both hesitancy and refusal, "Mass media appreciating effectiveness and safety of vaccines" (Cues to action), and " Health professions students get serious complications of COVID-19 if not vaccinated" (Perceived severity) were negative predictors. In contrast, "Manufacturers do not disclose adverse effects of vaccines" (Cues to action), and "Adverse effect causes death" (Perceived barrier) were recognized as positive predictors. Strong Health Belief Model predictors of vaccine refusal were "Manufacturers do not disclose adverse effects of vaccines" (Cues to action) with OR= 5.299(95% CI: 1.687-16.641, p= 0.004), and "Adverse effect causes death" (Perceived barrier) with OR= 10.255 (95% CI = 3.528-29.814, p= 0.0005).
Health professions students' acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination might be based on the perceived susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19, concerns about vaccine efficacy and safety, and the influence levels of information from various sources. Health education and measures to prevent the harmful effects of COVID-19 vaccine misinformation could potentially improve the acceptance rate of the COVID-19 vaccine.