Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients: Production pathway, challenges and recent advances in renal PBUTs clearance.NanoImpact. 2021 01; 21:100299.N
Uremic toxins, a group of uremic retention solutes with high concentration which their accumulation on the body makes several biological problems, have recently gained a large interest. The importance of this issue more targets patients with compromised kidney function since the presence of these toxins in their bodies contributes to serious illness and death. It is reported that around 14% of people are subjected of CKD's problems. Among different classifications of uremic toxins, protein bound uremic toxins are poorly removed from the body as they tightly bind to proteins like serum albumin. A deeper and closer understanding of methods for removing protein bound uremic toxins and their efficiency is of paramount importance. This article discussed the most critical protein bound uremic toxins from different points of view including their chemistry, binding sites, interactions, and their biological impacts. Concerning the toxicity and high concentration, p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), Indoxyl sulfate (IS), 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF), and Indole- 3-acetic acid (IAA) was chosen to study in this article. Results offered that the functional groups of mentioned PBUTs and the way that they interact with the adsorbent play an important role in finding substances for removal of them. Furthermore, the development of nanoparticle (NPs) for promising biomedical purposes has been explored. However, there is still a need for further investigation to find biocompatible substances focusing on the removal of PBUTs. PBUTs are a unique class of uremic toxins whose renal clearance mechanisms and role in uremic pathophysiology are still unclear. This review outlines the biochemical aspects of PBUT/protein binding in a view to explaining their renal formation to elimination mechanisms; some examples are drawn from routes involving albumin-binding with indoxyl sulphate, p-cresyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide and hippuric acid. We have also highlighted the kinetic behaviors during dialytic removal of PBUTs to address future concerns regarding dialytic therapy.