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Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients: Production pathway, challenges and recent advances in renal PBUTs clearance.
NanoImpact. 2021 01; 21:100299.N

Abstract

Uremic toxins, a group of uremic retention solutes with high concentration which their accumulation on the body makes several biological problems, have recently gained a large interest. The importance of this issue more targets patients with compromised kidney function since the presence of these toxins in their bodies contributes to serious illness and death. It is reported that around 14% of people are subjected of CKD's problems. Among different classifications of uremic toxins, protein bound uremic toxins are poorly removed from the body as they tightly bind to proteins like serum albumin. A deeper and closer understanding of methods for removing protein bound uremic toxins and their efficiency is of paramount importance. This article discussed the most critical protein bound uremic toxins from different points of view including their chemistry, binding sites, interactions, and their biological impacts. Concerning the toxicity and high concentration, p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), Indoxyl sulfate (IS), 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF), and Indole- 3-acetic acid (IAA) was chosen to study in this article. Results offered that the functional groups of mentioned PBUTs and the way that they interact with the adsorbent play an important role in finding substances for removal of them. Furthermore, the development of nanoparticle (NPs) for promising biomedical purposes has been explored. However, there is still a need for further investigation to find biocompatible substances focusing on the removal of PBUTs. PBUTs are a unique class of uremic toxins whose renal clearance mechanisms and role in uremic pathophysiology are still unclear. This review outlines the biochemical aspects of PBUT/protein binding in a view to explaining their renal formation to elimination mechanisms; some examples are drawn from routes involving albumin-binding with indoxyl sulphate, p-cresyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide and hippuric acid. We have also highlighted the kinetic behaviors during dialytic removal of PBUTs to address future concerns regarding dialytic therapy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A9, Canada.Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A9, Canada.Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A9, Canada; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A9, Canada. Electronic address: amira.abdelrasoul@usask.ca.Nephrology Division, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada; Saskatchewan Transplant Program, St. Paul's Hospital, 1702 20th Street West Saskatoon Saskatchewan S7M 0Z9, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

35559786

Citation

Daneshamouz, Sana, et al. "Protein-bound Uremic Toxins (PBUTs) in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients: Production Pathway, Challenges and Recent Advances in Renal PBUTs Clearance." NanoImpact, vol. 21, 2021, p. 100299.
Daneshamouz S, Eduok U, Abdelrasoul A, et al. Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients: Production pathway, challenges and recent advances in renal PBUTs clearance. NanoImpact. 2021;21:100299.
Daneshamouz, S., Eduok, U., Abdelrasoul, A., & Shoker, A. (2021). Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients: Production pathway, challenges and recent advances in renal PBUTs clearance. NanoImpact, 21, 100299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.impact.2021.100299
Daneshamouz S, et al. Protein-bound Uremic Toxins (PBUTs) in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients: Production Pathway, Challenges and Recent Advances in Renal PBUTs Clearance. NanoImpact. 2021;21:100299. PubMed PMID: 35559786.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients: Production pathway, challenges and recent advances in renal PBUTs clearance. AU - Daneshamouz,Sana, AU - Eduok,Ubong, AU - Abdelrasoul,Amira, AU - Shoker,Ahmed, Y1 - 2021/01/28/ PY - 2020/10/26/received PY - 2021/01/13/revised PY - 2021/01/20/accepted PY - 2022/5/13/entrez PY - 2021/1/1/pubmed PY - 2022/5/20/medline KW - Hemodialysis membranes KW - Human serum proteins KW - Nanoparticles KW - Protein-bound uremic toxins KW - Renal clearance SP - 100299 EP - 100299 JF - NanoImpact JO - NanoImpact VL - 21 N2 - Uremic toxins, a group of uremic retention solutes with high concentration which their accumulation on the body makes several biological problems, have recently gained a large interest. The importance of this issue more targets patients with compromised kidney function since the presence of these toxins in their bodies contributes to serious illness and death. It is reported that around 14% of people are subjected of CKD's problems. Among different classifications of uremic toxins, protein bound uremic toxins are poorly removed from the body as they tightly bind to proteins like serum albumin. A deeper and closer understanding of methods for removing protein bound uremic toxins and their efficiency is of paramount importance. This article discussed the most critical protein bound uremic toxins from different points of view including their chemistry, binding sites, interactions, and their biological impacts. Concerning the toxicity and high concentration, p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), Indoxyl sulfate (IS), 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF), and Indole- 3-acetic acid (IAA) was chosen to study in this article. Results offered that the functional groups of mentioned PBUTs and the way that they interact with the adsorbent play an important role in finding substances for removal of them. Furthermore, the development of nanoparticle (NPs) for promising biomedical purposes has been explored. However, there is still a need for further investigation to find biocompatible substances focusing on the removal of PBUTs. PBUTs are a unique class of uremic toxins whose renal clearance mechanisms and role in uremic pathophysiology are still unclear. This review outlines the biochemical aspects of PBUT/protein binding in a view to explaining their renal formation to elimination mechanisms; some examples are drawn from routes involving albumin-binding with indoxyl sulphate, p-cresyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide and hippuric acid. We have also highlighted the kinetic behaviors during dialytic removal of PBUTs to address future concerns regarding dialytic therapy. SN - 2452-0748 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/35559786/Protein_bound_uremic_toxins__PBUTs__in_chronic_kidney_disease__CKD__patients:_Production_pathway_challenges_and_recent_advances_in_renal_PBUTs_clearance_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2452-0748(21)00008-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -