Diagnostic Circulating miRNAs in Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.Front Med (Lausanne). 2022; 9:861960.FM
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the neurodegeneration of motoneurons. About 10% of ALS is hereditary and involves mutation in 25 different genes, while 90% of the cases are sporadic forms of ALS (sALS). The diagnosis of ALS includes the detection of early symptoms and, as disease progresses, muscle twitching and then atrophy spreads from hands to other parts of the body. The disease causes high disability and has a high mortality rate; moreover, the therapeutic approaches for the pathology are not effective. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, whose activity has a major impact on the expression levels of coding mRNA. The literature identifies several miRNAs with diagnostic abilities on sALS, but a unique diagnostic profile is not defined. As miRNAs could be secreted, the identification of specific blood miRNAs with diagnostic ability for sALS could be helpful in the identification of the patients. In the view of personalized medicine, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature in order to select specific circulating miRNAs with diagnostic properties and, by bioinformatics approaches, we identified a panel of 10 miRNAs (miR-193b, miR-3911, miR-139-5p, miR-193b-1, miR-338-5p, miR-3911-1, miR-455-3p, miR-4687-5p, miR-4745-5p, and miR-4763-3p) able to classify sALS patients by blood analysis. Among them, the analysis of expression levels of the couple of blood miR-193b/miR-4745-5p could be translated in clinical practice for the diagnosis of sALS.