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Cytotoxicity of Venoms and Cytotoxins from Asiatic Cobras (Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana, Naja atra) and Neutralization by Antivenoms from Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan.
Toxins (Basel). 2022 May 10; 14(5)T

Abstract

Envenoming by cobras (Naja spp.) often results in extensive local tissue necrosis when optimal treatment with antivenom is not available. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of venoms and purified cytotoxins from the Monocled Cobra (Naja kaouthia), Taiwan Cobra (Naja atra), and Equatorial Spitting Cobra (Naja sumatrana) in a mouse fibroblast cell line, followed by neutralization of the cytotoxicity by three regional antivenoms: the Thai Naja kaouthia monovalent antivenom (NkMAV), Vietnamese snake antivenom (SAV) and Taiwanese Neuro bivalent antivenom (NBAV). The cytotoxins of N. atra (NA-CTX) and N. sumatrana (NS-CTX) were identified as P-type cytotoxins, whereas that of N. kaouthia (NK-CTX) is S-type. All venoms and purified cytotoxins demonstrated varying concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in the following trend: highest for N. atra, followed by N. sumatrana and N. kaouthia. The antivenoms moderately neutralized the cytotoxicity of N. kaouthia venom but were weak against N. atra and N. sumatrana venom cytotoxicity. The neutralization potencies of the antivenoms against the cytotoxins were varied and generally low across NA-CTX, NS-CTX, and NK-CTX, possibly attributed to limited antigenicity of CTXs and/or different formulation of antivenom products. The study underscores the need for antivenom improvement and/or new therapies in treating local tissue toxicity caused by cobra envenomings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Venom Research and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.Protein and Interactomics Laboratory, Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan.National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan.Venom Research and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

35622581

Citation

Chong, Ho Phin, et al. "Cytotoxicity of Venoms and Cytotoxins From Asiatic Cobras (Naja Kaouthia, Naja Sumatrana, Naja Atra) and Neutralization By Antivenoms From Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan." Toxins, vol. 14, no. 5, 2022.
Chong HP, Tan KY, Liu BS, et al. Cytotoxicity of Venoms and Cytotoxins from Asiatic Cobras (Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana, Naja atra) and Neutralization by Antivenoms from Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Toxins (Basel). 2022;14(5).
Chong, H. P., Tan, K. Y., Liu, B. S., Sung, W. C., & Tan, C. H. (2022). Cytotoxicity of Venoms and Cytotoxins from Asiatic Cobras (Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana, Naja atra) and Neutralization by Antivenoms from Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Toxins, 14(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050334
Chong HP, et al. Cytotoxicity of Venoms and Cytotoxins From Asiatic Cobras (Naja Kaouthia, Naja Sumatrana, Naja Atra) and Neutralization By Antivenoms From Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Toxins (Basel). 2022 May 10;14(5) PubMed PMID: 35622581.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cytotoxicity of Venoms and Cytotoxins from Asiatic Cobras (Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana, Naja atra) and Neutralization by Antivenoms from Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan. AU - Chong,Ho Phin, AU - Tan,Kae Yi, AU - Liu,Bing-Sin, AU - Sung,Wang-Chou, AU - Tan,Choo Hock, Y1 - 2022/05/10/ PY - 2022/3/20/received PY - 2022/5/3/revised PY - 2022/5/4/accepted PY - 2022/5/27/entrez PY - 2022/5/28/pubmed PY - 2022/6/1/medline KW - Chinese Cobra KW - Equatorial Spitting Cobra KW - Monocled Cobra KW - cytotoxin KW - in vitro assay JF - Toxins JO - Toxins (Basel) VL - 14 IS - 5 N2 - Envenoming by cobras (Naja spp.) often results in extensive local tissue necrosis when optimal treatment with antivenom is not available. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of venoms and purified cytotoxins from the Monocled Cobra (Naja kaouthia), Taiwan Cobra (Naja atra), and Equatorial Spitting Cobra (Naja sumatrana) in a mouse fibroblast cell line, followed by neutralization of the cytotoxicity by three regional antivenoms: the Thai Naja kaouthia monovalent antivenom (NkMAV), Vietnamese snake antivenom (SAV) and Taiwanese Neuro bivalent antivenom (NBAV). The cytotoxins of N. atra (NA-CTX) and N. sumatrana (NS-CTX) were identified as P-type cytotoxins, whereas that of N. kaouthia (NK-CTX) is S-type. All venoms and purified cytotoxins demonstrated varying concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in the following trend: highest for N. atra, followed by N. sumatrana and N. kaouthia. The antivenoms moderately neutralized the cytotoxicity of N. kaouthia venom but were weak against N. atra and N. sumatrana venom cytotoxicity. The neutralization potencies of the antivenoms against the cytotoxins were varied and generally low across NA-CTX, NS-CTX, and NK-CTX, possibly attributed to limited antigenicity of CTXs and/or different formulation of antivenom products. The study underscores the need for antivenom improvement and/or new therapies in treating local tissue toxicity caused by cobra envenomings. SN - 2072-6651 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/35622581/Cytotoxicity_of_Venoms_and_Cytotoxins_from_Asiatic_Cobras__Naja_kaouthia_Naja_sumatrana_Naja_atra__and_Neutralization_by_Antivenoms_from_Thailand_Vietnam_and_Taiwan_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -