Henipavirus Immune Evasion and Pathogenesis Mechanisms: Lessons Learnt from Natural Infection and Animal Models.Viruses. 2022 04 29; 14(5)V
Nipah henipavirus (NiV) and Hendra henipavirus (HeV) are zoonotic emerging paramyxoviruses causing severe disease outbreaks in humans and livestock, mostly in Australia, India, Malaysia, Singapore and Bangladesh. Both are bat-borne viruses and in humans, their mortality rates can reach 60% in the case of HeV and 92% for NiV, thus being two of the deadliest viruses known for humans. Several factors, including a large cellular tropism and a wide zoonotic potential, con-tribute to their high pathogenicity. This review provides an overview of HeV and NiV pathogenicity mechanisms and provides a summary of their interactions with the immune systems of their different host species, including their natural hosts bats, spillover-hosts pigs, horses, and humans, as well as in experimental animal models. A better understanding of the interactions between henipaviruses and their hosts could facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies and vaccine measures against these re-emerging viruses.