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Bioactive compounds with antifungal activity against pathogens isolated from pregnant woman: Gallesia integrifolia (garlic wood) is a promising treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2022 Sep 15; 295:115403.JE

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE

The leaves, bark, and roots of Gallesia integrifolia are consumed in folk medicine through infusion, decoction, and topical preparation by crushing because of its pharmacological properties in several peripheral system disorders, including microbial infections. The presence of various molecules in different parts of the plant likely confers this species' fungicidal action, but scientific evidence is lacking. Vulvovaginal candidiasis mainly affects women of reproductive age. When left untreated, it can cause pregnancy complications. Currently available antifungals often cause undesirable side effects. New alternative therapeutic strategies based on medicinal plants have been proposed.

AIM

To investigate the antifungal activity of G. integrifolia against vulvovaginal candidiasis secretion in pregnant women.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Antifungal activity was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), determined by broth microdilution method using Candida spp (NEWP1210), C. albicans (CCCD-CC001), C. tropicalis (CCCD-CC002) standard and clinical isolates from pregnant women with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Nystatin and fluconazole were used as positive controls. The chemical composition of essential oils that were extracted from leaves, flowers, and fruits of G. integrifolia was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Reverse docking was used to suggest a possible target in Candida. Conventional docking was used to identify the most probable compound that inhibits fungal growth.

RESULTS

A total of 24 compounds were identified, accounting for ∼99% of volatile constituents in the essential oils. Leaves of G. integrifolia contained 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (40.93%), flowers contained methionine ethyl ester (46.78%), and fruits contained 2,8-dithianonane (54.01%) as the most abundant compounds. The MICs of essential oils of leaves, flowers, and fruits of G. integrifolia against standard strains of Candida spp, C. albicans, and C. tropicalis ranged from 13.01 to 625.00 μg/mL. The essential oil of flowers more effectively inhibited Candida spp. Essential oils of leaves and flowers were similar to fluconazole against C. albicans. Essential oils of flowers and fruits were similar to fluconazole against C. tropocalis. In Candida yeast species that were isolated from vaginal secretion samples from pregnant patients, the MICs of leaves and flowers ranged from 52.08 to 5000.00 μg/mL. The essential oil of leaves (277.77 μg/mL) was the most active against C. albicans. No significant differences were found between the essential oils of leaves and flowers against C. glabrata. Docking simulations suggested that phytol in leaves and flowers was responsible for the antimicrobial effect.

CONCLUSION

The present results suggest the potential therapeutic use of G. integrifolia, especially its leaves and flowers, against Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Medicinal Plants and Phytotherapics in Basic Attention, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil.Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil.Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil.Universidade Federal do Paraná, Jandaia do Sul, PR, Brazil.Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil.Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Animal Sciences with Emphasis on Bioactive Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil.Postgraduate Program in Clean Technologies and Cesumar Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation, Cesumar University, Maringá, PR, Brazil.Postgraduate Program in Clean Technologies and Cesumar Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation, Cesumar University, Maringá, PR, Brazil.Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil.Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil.Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Medicinal Plants and Phytotherapics in Basic Attention, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Animal Sciences with Emphasis on Bioactive Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil.Department of Technology, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Umuarama, PR, Brazil.Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Medicinal Plants and Phytotherapics in Basic Attention, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil. Electronic address: evellyn@prof.unipar.br.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

35643209

Citation

de Souza, Amanda Nascimento Vasques, et al. "Bioactive Compounds With Antifungal Activity Against Pathogens Isolated From Pregnant Woman: Gallesia Integrifolia (garlic Wood) Is a Promising Treatment for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 295, 2022, p. 115403.
de Souza ANV, Faria MGI, da Rocha CE, et al. Bioactive compounds with antifungal activity against pathogens isolated from pregnant woman: Gallesia integrifolia (garlic wood) is a promising treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2022;295:115403.
de Souza, A. N. V., Faria, M. G. I., da Rocha, C. E., Philippsen, G. S., Silva, G. C. C., da Silva, G. R., Inumaro, R. S., Gonçalves, J. E., Gazim, Z. C., Wietzikoski, S., Lívero, F. A. D. R., Seixas, F. A. V., & Wietzikoski Lovato, E. C. (2022). Bioactive compounds with antifungal activity against pathogens isolated from pregnant woman: Gallesia integrifolia (garlic wood) is a promising treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 295, 115403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115403
de Souza ANV, et al. Bioactive Compounds With Antifungal Activity Against Pathogens Isolated From Pregnant Woman: Gallesia Integrifolia (garlic Wood) Is a Promising Treatment for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2022 Sep 15;295:115403. PubMed PMID: 35643209.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Bioactive compounds with antifungal activity against pathogens isolated from pregnant woman: Gallesia integrifolia (garlic wood) is a promising treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis. AU - de Souza,Amanda Nascimento Vasques, AU - Faria,Maria Graciela Iecher, AU - da Rocha,Cristiane Edna, AU - Philippsen,Gisele Strieder, AU - Silva,Gabriela Catuzo Canonico, AU - da Silva,Gustavo Ratti, AU - Inumaro,Rodrigo Sadao, AU - Gonçalves,José Eduardo, AU - Gazim,Zilda Cristiani, AU - Wietzikoski,Samantha, AU - Lívero,Francislaine Aparecida Dos Reis, AU - Seixas,Flavio Augusto Vicente, AU - Wietzikoski Lovato,Evellyn Claudia, Y1 - 2022/05/25/ PY - 2022/04/08/received PY - 2022/05/20/revised PY - 2022/05/22/accepted PY - 2022/6/2/pubmed PY - 2022/6/23/medline PY - 2022/6/1/entrez KW - 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide KW - Candida albicans KW - Candida glabrata KW - Ethyl ester KW - Gallesia integrifolia KW - Methionine KW - Phytol SP - 115403 EP - 115403 JF - Journal of ethnopharmacology JO - J Ethnopharmacol VL - 295 N2 - ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves, bark, and roots of Gallesia integrifolia are consumed in folk medicine through infusion, decoction, and topical preparation by crushing because of its pharmacological properties in several peripheral system disorders, including microbial infections. The presence of various molecules in different parts of the plant likely confers this species' fungicidal action, but scientific evidence is lacking. Vulvovaginal candidiasis mainly affects women of reproductive age. When left untreated, it can cause pregnancy complications. Currently available antifungals often cause undesirable side effects. New alternative therapeutic strategies based on medicinal plants have been proposed. AIM: To investigate the antifungal activity of G. integrifolia against vulvovaginal candidiasis secretion in pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antifungal activity was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), determined by broth microdilution method using Candida spp (NEWP1210), C. albicans (CCCD-CC001), C. tropicalis (CCCD-CC002) standard and clinical isolates from pregnant women with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Nystatin and fluconazole were used as positive controls. The chemical composition of essential oils that were extracted from leaves, flowers, and fruits of G. integrifolia was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Reverse docking was used to suggest a possible target in Candida. Conventional docking was used to identify the most probable compound that inhibits fungal growth. RESULTS: A total of 24 compounds were identified, accounting for ∼99% of volatile constituents in the essential oils. Leaves of G. integrifolia contained 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (40.93%), flowers contained methionine ethyl ester (46.78%), and fruits contained 2,8-dithianonane (54.01%) as the most abundant compounds. The MICs of essential oils of leaves, flowers, and fruits of G. integrifolia against standard strains of Candida spp, C. albicans, and C. tropicalis ranged from 13.01 to 625.00 μg/mL. The essential oil of flowers more effectively inhibited Candida spp. Essential oils of leaves and flowers were similar to fluconazole against C. albicans. Essential oils of flowers and fruits were similar to fluconazole against C. tropocalis. In Candida yeast species that were isolated from vaginal secretion samples from pregnant patients, the MICs of leaves and flowers ranged from 52.08 to 5000.00 μg/mL. The essential oil of leaves (277.77 μg/mL) was the most active against C. albicans. No significant differences were found between the essential oils of leaves and flowers against C. glabrata. Docking simulations suggested that phytol in leaves and flowers was responsible for the antimicrobial effect. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest the potential therapeutic use of G. integrifolia, especially its leaves and flowers, against Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. SN - 1872-7573 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/35643209/Bioactive_compounds_with_antifungal_activity_against_pathogens_isolated_from_pregnant_woman:_Gallesia_integrifolia_(garlic_wood)_is_a_promising_treatment_for_vulvovaginal_candidiasis. L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-8741(22)00442-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -