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A Deep Look at the Vaginal Environment During Pregnancy and Puerperium.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022; 12:838405.FC

Abstract

A deep comprehension of the vaginal ecosystem may hold promise for unraveling the pathophysiology of pregnancy and may provide novel biomarkers to identify subjects at risk of maternal-fetal complications. In this prospective study, we assessed the characteristics of the vaginal environment in a cohort of pregnant women throughout their different gestational ages and puerperium. Both the vaginal bacterial composition and the vaginal metabolic profiles were analyzed. A total of 63 Caucasian women with a successful pregnancy and 9 subjects who had a first trimester miscarriage were enrolled. For the study, obstetric examinations were scheduled along the three trimester phases (9-13, 20-24, 32-34 gestation weeks) and puerperium (40-55 days after delivery). Two vaginal swabs were collected at each time point, to assess the vaginal microbiome profiling (by Nugent score and 16S rRNA gene sequencing) and the vaginal metabolic composition (1H-NMR spectroscopy). During pregnancy, the vaginal microbiome underwent marked changes, with a significant decrease in overall diversity, and increased stability. Over time, we found a significant increase of Lactobacillus and a decrease of several genera related to bacterial vaginosis (BV), such as Prevotella, Atopobium and Sneathia. It is worth noting that the levels of Bifidobacterium spp. tended to decrease at the end of pregnancy. At the puerperium, a significantly lower content of Lactobacillus and higher levels of Gardnerella, Prevotella, Atopobium, and Streptococcus were observed. Women receiving an intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) were characterized by a vaginal abundance of Prevotella compared to untreated women. Analysis of bacterial relative abundances highlighted an increased abundance of Fusobacterium in women suffering a first trimester abortion, at all taxonomic levels. Lactobacillus abundance was strongly correlated with higher levels of lactate, sarcosine, and many amino acids (i.e., isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan). Conversely, BV-associated genera, such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, and Sneathia, were related to amines (e.g., putrescine, methylamine), formate, acetate, alcohols, and short-chain fatty-acids (i.e., butyrate, propionate).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Biomedical Technologies - National Research Council, Milan, Italy.Microbiology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.Institute of Biomedical Technologies - National Research Council, Milan, Italy.Institute of Biomedical Technologies - National Research Council, Milan, Italy.Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy.Family Advisory Health Centres, Ravenna, Italy.Family Advisory Health Centres, Ravenna, Italy.Unit of Microbiology, Greater Romagna Hub Laboratory, Cesena, Italy.Microbiology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Unit of Microbiology, Greater Romagna Hub Laboratory, Cesena, Italy.Microbiology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.Institute of Biomedical Technologies - National Research Council, Milan, Italy.Microbiology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

35656029

Citation

Severgnini, Marco, et al. "A Deep Look at the Vaginal Environment During Pregnancy and Puerperium." Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, vol. 12, 2022, p. 838405.
Severgnini M, Morselli S, Camboni T, et al. A Deep Look at the Vaginal Environment During Pregnancy and Puerperium. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022;12:838405.
Severgnini, M., Morselli, S., Camboni, T., Ceccarani, C., Laghi, L., Zagonari, S., Patuelli, G., Pedna, M. F., Sambri, V., Foschi, C., Consolandi, C., & Marangoni, A. (2022). A Deep Look at the Vaginal Environment During Pregnancy and Puerperium. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 12, 838405. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2022.838405
Severgnini M, et al. A Deep Look at the Vaginal Environment During Pregnancy and Puerperium. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022;12:838405. PubMed PMID: 35656029.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A Deep Look at the Vaginal Environment During Pregnancy and Puerperium. AU - Severgnini,Marco, AU - Morselli,Sara, AU - Camboni,Tania, AU - Ceccarani,Camilla, AU - Laghi,Luca, AU - Zagonari,Sara, AU - Patuelli,Giulia, AU - Pedna,Maria Federica, AU - Sambri,Vittorio, AU - Foschi,Claudio, AU - Consolandi,Clarissa, AU - Marangoni,Antonella, Y1 - 2022/05/17/ PY - 2022/1/12/received PY - 2022/4/21/accepted PY - 2022/6/3/entrez PY - 2022/6/4/pubmed PY - 2022/6/7/medline KW - miscarriage KW - pregnancy KW - puerperium KW - vaginal metabolome KW - vaginal microbiome KW - women’s health SP - 838405 EP - 838405 JF - Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology JO - Front Cell Infect Microbiol VL - 12 N2 - A deep comprehension of the vaginal ecosystem may hold promise for unraveling the pathophysiology of pregnancy and may provide novel biomarkers to identify subjects at risk of maternal-fetal complications. In this prospective study, we assessed the characteristics of the vaginal environment in a cohort of pregnant women throughout their different gestational ages and puerperium. Both the vaginal bacterial composition and the vaginal metabolic profiles were analyzed. A total of 63 Caucasian women with a successful pregnancy and 9 subjects who had a first trimester miscarriage were enrolled. For the study, obstetric examinations were scheduled along the three trimester phases (9-13, 20-24, 32-34 gestation weeks) and puerperium (40-55 days after delivery). Two vaginal swabs were collected at each time point, to assess the vaginal microbiome profiling (by Nugent score and 16S rRNA gene sequencing) and the vaginal metabolic composition (1H-NMR spectroscopy). During pregnancy, the vaginal microbiome underwent marked changes, with a significant decrease in overall diversity, and increased stability. Over time, we found a significant increase of Lactobacillus and a decrease of several genera related to bacterial vaginosis (BV), such as Prevotella, Atopobium and Sneathia. It is worth noting that the levels of Bifidobacterium spp. tended to decrease at the end of pregnancy. At the puerperium, a significantly lower content of Lactobacillus and higher levels of Gardnerella, Prevotella, Atopobium, and Streptococcus were observed. Women receiving an intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) were characterized by a vaginal abundance of Prevotella compared to untreated women. Analysis of bacterial relative abundances highlighted an increased abundance of Fusobacterium in women suffering a first trimester abortion, at all taxonomic levels. Lactobacillus abundance was strongly correlated with higher levels of lactate, sarcosine, and many amino acids (i.e., isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan). Conversely, BV-associated genera, such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, and Sneathia, were related to amines (e.g., putrescine, methylamine), formate, acetate, alcohols, and short-chain fatty-acids (i.e., butyrate, propionate). SN - 2235-2988 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/35656029/A_Deep_Look_at_the_Vaginal_Environment_During_Pregnancy_and_Puerperium. DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -