Efficacy of Parainfluenza Virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored Intranasal COVID-19 Vaccine as a Single Dose Vaccine and as a Booster against SARS-CoV-2 Variants.bioRxiv. 2022 Jun 08B
Immunization with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines has greatly reduced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related deaths and hospitalizations, but waning immunity and the emergence of variants capable of immune escape indicate the need for novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. An intranasal parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored COVID-19 vaccine CVXGA1 has been proven efficacious in animal models and blocks contact transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ferrets. CVXGA1 vaccine is currently in human clinical trials in the United States. This work investigates the immunogenicity and efficacy of CVXGA1 and other PIV5-vectored vaccines expressing additional antigen SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (N) or SARS-CoV-2 variant spike (S) proteins of beta, delta, gamma, and omicron variants against homologous and heterologous challenges in hamsters. A single intranasal dose of CVXGA1 induces neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 WA1 (ancestral), delta variant, and omicron variant and protects against both homologous and heterologous virus challenges. Compared to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, neutralizing antibody titers induced by CVXGA1 were well-maintained over time. When administered as a boost following two doses of a mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, PIV5-vectored vaccines expressing the S protein from WA1 (CVXGA1), delta, or omicron variants generate higher levels of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies compared to three doses of a mRNA vaccine. In addition to the S protein, the N protein provides added protection as assessed by the highest body weight gain post-challenge infection. Our data indicates that PIV5-vectored COVID-19 vaccines, such as CVXGA1, can serve as booster vaccines against emerging variants.
With emerging new variants of concern (VOC), SARS-CoV 2 continues to be a major threat to human health. Approved COVID-19 vaccines have been less effective against these emerging VOCs. This work demonstrates the protective efficacy, and strong boosting effect, of a new intranasal viral-vectored vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants in hamsters.