Fatigue and failure analysis of restored endodontically treated maxillary incisors without a dowel or ferrule.J Prosthet Dent. 2022 Jun 12 [Online ahead of print]JP
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Information on the survival and mode of failure of endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule and restored without dowels is lacking.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the survival and failure mode of endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule and restored with bonded ceramic crowns and various composite resin foundation restorations without dowels with a control group with fiber dowels.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Forty-five decoronated endodontically treated bovine incisors without ferrule were divided into 3 experimental groups and restored with different adhesive foundation restorations without dowel: nanohybrid composite resin (Nd), bulk-fill composite resin foundation restoration (NdB), and fiber-reinforced bulk-fill composite resin (NdFR). A control group with conventional foundation restorations (glass-fiber dowel with nanohybrid composite resin foundation restoration without ferrule) (D) was included for comparison. All teeth were prepared to receive bonded lithium disilicate ceramic crowns luted with dual-polymerizing composite resin cement and were subjected to accelerated fatigue testing. Cyclic isometric loading was applied to the incisal edge at an angle of 30 degrees and a frequency of 5 Hz, beginning with a load of 100 N (5000 cycles). A 100-N load increase was applied each 15 000 cycles. Specimens were loaded until failure or to a maximum for cycles endured of 1000 N (140 000 cycles). Groups were compared by using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (log rank test at α=.05 and pairwise post hoc comparisons) and life table analysis for load-at-failure (followed by Wilcoxon pairwise comparison α=.05).
All the specimens failed before 140 000 load cycles. Even though no statistically significant differences were found between the experimental groups without dowel (P>.127), the fiber-reinforced foundation restoration yielded the highest mean ±standard deviation cycles to failure (46 023 ±4326) compared with Nd (38 899 ±2975) and NdB (39 751 ±2998). NdFR, however, outperformed the foundation restoration with glass-fiber dowel (35 026 ±2687) (P<.05). Most failure in groups without dowel were restorable, while 100% of catastrophic failure (unrestorable) were found in the group with dowels.
Based on the present in vitro study, dowels did not improve the performance of the adhesive restoration of endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule. The use of a short fiber-reinforced composite resin foundation restoration without a dowel was able to not only improve the resistance of the restorations compared with adhesive foundation restorations with dowels but also minimize catastrophic failures.