Source analysis and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in farmland soils around heavy metal industry in Anxin County.Sci Rep. 2022 06 22; 12(1):10562.SR
Studying the pollution status, spatial distribution characteristics, and sources of heavy metals in farmland soil in Anxin County will provide a method basis for the next step of soil remediation. This study investigates the contents of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Ni in wheat grains and soil samples. Moreover, different methods are used to evaluate soil heavy metal pollution. The results show that the soil in the study area is weakly alkaline. Cu, Zn, and Ni contents in the ground are lower than the risk screening values for soil contamination of agricultural land. In comparison, Cd and Pb contents are higher than the screening value of soil pollution risk of agricultural land, and the proportion of points lower than the control value of soil pollution risk of agricultural land are 64.58% and 16.67%, respectively. The farmland with high Cd and Pb content is mainly distributed near roads and factories and concentrated primarily on 0-20 cm topsoil. The Cd content in wheat grains meets the standard, but 4.17% of the samples are close to 0.1 mg kg-1 (more than 0.09 mg kg-1). The Pb content of 50% of the wheat grain samples exceeds the lead limit in the standard. The evaluation results of the single factor pollution index and geoaccumulation index show that the pollution degree of heavy metals in the soil is Cd > Pb > Cu > Zn > Ni. The potential ecological risk index in the study area is 288.83, and the soil heavy metal pollution is at a moderate-considerable ecological risk level. The average value of Cd's single-factor environmental risk index is 233.51, which belongs to the high environmental risk and is the main influencing factor. Cd and Pb in soil are significantly disturbed by the production activities of heavy metal processing enterprises around the farmland. It is speculated that there are two primary sources of soil heavy metal pollution in the study area. Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are mainly industrial and mobile sources, and Ni is primarily agricultural and natural sources.