Neuroprotective Effect of Caffeine in Alzheimer's Disease.Molecules. 2022 Jun 10; 27(12)M
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia, predicted to be the most significant health burden of the 21st century, with an estimated 131.5 million dementia patients by the year 2050. This review aims to provide an overview of the effect of caffeine on AD and cognition by summarizing relevant research conducted on this topic. We searched the Web of Science core collection and PubMed for studies related to the effect of caffeine on AD and cognition using title search terms: caffeine; coffee; Alzheimer's; cognition. There is suggestive evidence from clinical studies that caffeine is neuroprotective against dementia and possibly AD (20 out of 30 studies support this), but further studies, such as the "ideal" study proposed in this review, are required to prove this link. Clinical studies also indicate that caffeine is a cognitive normalizer and not a cognitive enhancer. Furthermore, clinical studies suggest the neuroprotective effect of caffeine might be confounded by gender. There is robust evidence based on in vivo and in vitro studies that caffeine has neuroprotective properties in AD animal models (21 out of 22 studies support this), but further studies are needed to identify the mechanistic pathways mediating these effects.