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The Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES): A comprehensive examination of its factorial validity, with recommendations for researchers.
Body Image. 2022 Sep; 42:173-182.BI

Abstract

The 16-item Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES) is widely used to assess the discrete emotions of guilt, shame, authentic pride, and hubristic pride. However, recent work has questioned the factorial validity of the BASES (i.e., the extent to which it truly assesses a discrete set of self-conscious emotions). In the present study, we re-assessed the factorial validity of the BASES using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM). An online sample of adults from the United Kingdom (N = 637) were asked to complete the BASES. Our analyses indicated that the original 4-factor CFA model had adequate fit but resulted in very high latent correlations between similarly valenced facets (Guilt/Shame and Authentic/Hubristic Pride, respectively). An alternative 2-factor CFA model (combining Guilt-Shame and Authentic-Hubristic Pride) had a less-than-ideal fit. Conversely, 4-factor and 2-factor ESEM solutions both resulted in a superior fit to the data than their CFA counterparts, and in reduced estimates of factor correlations. Both of these ESEM solutions were also fully invariant across gender. These results have important theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of body and appearance-related self-conscious emotions and how this construct is currently measured.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address: viren.swami@aru.ac.uk.Department of Psychoeducation and Psychology, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Saint-Jérôme, Canada; Cyberpsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychoeducation and Psychology, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Saint-Jérôme, Canada; Substantive-Methodological Synergy Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.Substantive-Methodological Synergy Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

35750012

Citation

Swami, Viren, et al. "The Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES): a Comprehensive Examination of Its Factorial Validity, With Recommendations for Researchers." Body Image, vol. 42, 2022, pp. 173-182.
Swami V, Maïano C, Morin AJS. The Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES): A comprehensive examination of its factorial validity, with recommendations for researchers. Body Image. 2022;42:173-182.
Swami, V., Maïano, C., & Morin, A. J. S. (2022). The Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES): A comprehensive examination of its factorial validity, with recommendations for researchers. Body Image, 42, 173-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2022.06.009
Swami V, Maïano C, Morin AJS. The Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES): a Comprehensive Examination of Its Factorial Validity, With Recommendations for Researchers. Body Image. 2022;42:173-182. PubMed PMID: 35750012.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES): A comprehensive examination of its factorial validity, with recommendations for researchers. AU - Swami,Viren, AU - Maïano,Christophe, AU - Morin,Alexandre J S, Y1 - 2022/06/21/ PY - 2022/5/5/received PY - 2022/6/10/revised PY - 2022/6/14/accepted PY - 2022/6/25/pubmed PY - 2022/8/26/medline PY - 2022/6/24/entrez KW - BASES KW - Confirmatory factor analysis KW - Exploratory structural equation modelling KW - Factorial validity KW - Self-conscious emotions SP - 173 EP - 182 JF - Body image JO - Body Image VL - 42 N2 - The 16-item Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES) is widely used to assess the discrete emotions of guilt, shame, authentic pride, and hubristic pride. However, recent work has questioned the factorial validity of the BASES (i.e., the extent to which it truly assesses a discrete set of self-conscious emotions). In the present study, we re-assessed the factorial validity of the BASES using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM). An online sample of adults from the United Kingdom (N = 637) were asked to complete the BASES. Our analyses indicated that the original 4-factor CFA model had adequate fit but resulted in very high latent correlations between similarly valenced facets (Guilt/Shame and Authentic/Hubristic Pride, respectively). An alternative 2-factor CFA model (combining Guilt-Shame and Authentic-Hubristic Pride) had a less-than-ideal fit. Conversely, 4-factor and 2-factor ESEM solutions both resulted in a superior fit to the data than their CFA counterparts, and in reduced estimates of factor correlations. Both of these ESEM solutions were also fully invariant across gender. These results have important theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of body and appearance-related self-conscious emotions and how this construct is currently measured. SN - 1873-6807 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/35750012/The_Body_and_Appearance_Self_Conscious_Emotions_Scale__BASES_:_A_comprehensive_examination_of_its_factorial_validity_with_recommendations_for_researchers_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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