Development of highly stable color indicator films based on κ-carrageenan, silver nanoparticle and red grape skin anthocyanin for marine fish freshness assessment.Int J Biol Macromol. 2022 Sep 01; 216:655-669.IJ
Color indicator films for fish freshness were fabricated by incorporating κ-carrageenan (CAR) polymer with red grape skin extract (GSE) as a pH-sensing agent and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as an antimicrobial agent. Anthocyanins in GSE exhibited distinguished pH responsive color changes. GSE and AgNPs were well compatible with CAR with intramolecular interactions, approved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). GSE-containing films displayed distinguished color changes in response to pH variations and volatile ammonia. Enhanced UV blocking ability and strong antioxidant activity were revealed for GSE included films without sacrificing the physico-chemical properties of the CAR film. Films containing AgNPs showed improved mechanical strength and strong antimicrobial ability against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The CAR/AgNPs/GSE film displayed a distinctive color change corresponding to changes in the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) of fish during storage. In addition, the CAR/AgNPs/GSE film showed excellent color stability to consecutive UV exposure and its storage time at 25 °C is expected to be at least 240 days, which indicates that it has high potential as an intelligent food freshness indicator film.