Association of voltage-gated sodium channel mutations with field-evolved pyrethroid resistant phenotypes in soybean aphid and genetic markers for their detection.Sci Rep. 2022 07 14; 12(1):12020.SR
The frequent use of insecticides to manage soybean aphids, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in the United States has contributed to field-evolved resistance. Pyrethroid-resistant aphids have nonsynonymous mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc). We identified a leucine to phenylalanine mutation at position 1014 (L1014F) and a methionine to isoleucine mutation (M918I) of the A. glycines vgsc, both suspected of conferring knockdown resistance (kdr) to lambda-cyhalothrin. We developed molecular markers to identify these mutations in insecticide-resistant aphids. We determined that A. glycines which survived exposure to a diagnostic concentration of lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin via glass-vial bioassays had these mutations, and showed significant changes in the resistance allele frequency between samples collected before and after field application of lambda-cyhalothrin. Thus, a strong association was revealed between aphids with L1014F and M918I vgsc mutations and survival following exposure to pyrethroids. Specifically, the highest survival was observed for aphids with the kdr (L1014F) and heterozygote super-kdr (L1014F + M918I) genotypes following laboratory bioassays and in-field application of lambda-cyhalothrin. These genetic markers could be used as a diagnostic tool for detecting insecticide-resistant A. glycines and monitoring the geographic distribution of pyrethroid resistance. We discuss how generating these types of data could improve our efforts to mitigate the effects of pyrethroid resistance on crop production.