Evaluation of aroma characteristics in grass carp mince as affected by different washing processes using an E-nose, HS-SPME-GC-MS, HS-GC-IMS, and sensory analysis.Food Res Int. 2022 08; 158:111584.FR
The aroma characteristics of grass carp mince washed in four processes were analyzed via electronic nose (E-nose), headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS), and sensory analysis techniques. Significant differences were revealed in the E-nose and sensory analysis results of the aroma characteristics of grass carp mince samples washed via different washing processes, while fifty-seven volatile compounds (thirteen aldehydes, eighteen alcohols, two ketones, eighteen hydrocarbons, two aromatic compounds, one furan, and two other compounds) and twenty volatile compounds (five aldehydes, four ketones, six alcohols, four esters, and one acid) were identified via HS-SPME-GC-MS and HS-GC-IMS of the Raw and washed grass carp mince samples, respectively. All these techniques revealed that the types and relative contents of volatile compounds in the grass carp mince decreased significantly and differently after each of the four washing processes. Moreover, compared with the water and saline solution washing processes, washing with weak alkaline solution processes exhibited the most significant removal effect on the volatile compounds of grass carp mince. Besides, the sensory analysis results also showed that weak alkaline solution washing processes (washing twice with pure water and once with 0.3% sodium bicarbonate solution) may be most effective in removing fishy off-odor compounds and contributing to a better overall aroma profile in grass carp mince. The findings of this study may provide some basic knowledge for the rational screening of washing methods in the production of high-quality grass carp surimi.