Immunomodulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Acute Lung Injury: From Preclinical Animal Models to Treatment of Severe COVID-19.Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jul 25; 23(15)IJ
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been a major public health challenge worldwide. Owing to the emergence of novel viral variants, the risks of reinfections and vaccine breakthrough infections has increased considerably despite a mass of vaccination. The formation of cytokine storm, which subsequently leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome, is the major cause of mortality in patients with COVID-19. Based on results of preclinical animal models and clinical trials of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, the immunomodulatory, tissue repair, and antiviral properties of MSCs highlight their potential to treat COVID-19. This review article summarizes the potential mechanisms and outcomes of MSC therapy in COVID-19, along with the pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The properties of MSCs and lessons from preclinical animal models of acute lung injury are mentioned ahead. Important issues related to the use of MSCs in COVID-19 are discussed finally.