HIV risk behavior and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.PLoS One. 2022; 17(7):e0269304.Plos
HIV risk behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is a major public health concern as it increases HIV transmission. In Ethiopia, findings regarding HIV risk behavior have been inconsistent and inconclusive. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of HIV risk behavior and associated factors among PLWHA in Ethiopia.
International databases, including Google Scholar, Cochrane library, HINARI, Pub Med, CINAHL, and Global Health were systematically searched to identify articles reporting the prevalence of HIV risk behavior and associated factors among PLWHA in Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using STATA/SE version-14. The random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled effects. I-squared statistics and Egger's test were used to assess the heterogeneity and publication bias respectively.
A total of 4,137 articles were reviewed and fourteen articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of HIV risk behavior in Ethiopia was 34.3%% (95% CI: 28.2, 40.3). Severe heterogeneity was observed between the included research articles (I2 = 96.6, p = 0.000). Alcohol use (OR = 1.9, 95%, CI: [1.6, 2.3]), HIV status non-disclosure (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: [1.3, 4.0]) and perceived stigma (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: [1.3, 4.1]) had a significant association with HIV risk behavior.
The prevalence of HIV risk behavior among PLWHA in Ethiopia was high. Alcohol use, HIV status non-disclosure, and perceived stigma had a significant association with HIV risk behavior. In addition to promoting access to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) treatment and improving medication adherence among PLWHA, various intervention programs focusing on the associated factors have to be implemented to tackle high-risk sexual behavior and go forward toward ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic.