Effect of egg cholesterol and dietary fats on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apoproteins of normal women consuming natural diets.J Lipid Res. 1987 May; 28(5):518-27.JL
Nine normal women, 22 to 37 years old, consumed controlled quantities of natural foods to test their responses to dietary cholesterol and saturated fat. All diets contained, as percentage of calories, 14% protein, 31% fat, and 55% carbohydrate. The main sources of polyunsaturated and saturated fats were corn oil and lard, respectively, and egg yolk was used for cholesterol supplementation. All subjects participated in four diet protocols of 15 days duration, and each diet period was separated by 3 weeks without diet control. The first diet (corn) was based on corn oil, had a polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio (P/S) of 2.14, and contained 130 mg of cholesterol. The second diet (corn+) was identical to the first but contained a total of 875 mg of cholesterol. The third diet (lard) was based on lard, had a P/S ratio of 0.64, and contained 130 mg of cholesterol. The fourth diet (lard+) was identical to the third, but contained 875 mg of cholesterol per day. Changes of the plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apoprotein parameters relative to the corn diet were as follows: the corn+ diet significantly increased total plasma cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and apoB levels; the lard diet significantly increased total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and apoB; and the lard+ diet significantly increased the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and apoA-I and apoB levels. There were no significant variations in VLDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, or apoE levels with these diets. The diets affected both the number of lipoprotein particles as well as the composition of LDL and HDL. Compared to the corn diet, cholesterol and saturated fat each increased the number of LDL particles by 17% and 9%, respectively, and the cholesterol per particle by 9%. The combination of saturated fat and cholesterol increased particle number by 18% and particle size by 24%. Switching from lard+ to lard, corn+, or corn diets reduced LDL-cholesterol of the group by 18%, 11%, and 28%, respectively, while a large inter-individual variability was noted. In summary, dietary fat and cholesterol affect lipid and lipoprotein levels as well as the particle number and chemical composition of both LDL and HDL. There is, however, considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in response to diet.