Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from coffee pulp using propylene glycol as a solvent and their antioxidant activities.Ultrason Sonochem. 2022 Sep; 89:106127.US
In the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, it has been increasingly popular to use alternative solvents in the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants. Coffee pulp, a by-product of coffee production, contains different phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The effects of polyols, amplitude, extraction time, solvent concentration, and liquid-solid ratio on total phenolic content (TPC) using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were examined by single-factor studies. Three main factors that impact TPC were selected to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total tannin content (TTC), and their antioxidant activities using the Box-Behnken design. Different extraction methods were compared, the bioactive compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QQQ), and the cytotoxicity and cellular antioxidant activities of the extract were studied. According to the response model, the optimal conditions for the extraction of antioxidants from coffee pulp were as follows: extraction time of 7.65 min, liquid-solid ratio of 22.22 mL/g, and solvent concentration of 46.71 %. Under optimized conditions, the values of TPC, TFC, TTC, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) were 9.29 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g sample, 58.82 ± 1.38 mg QE/g sample, 8.69 ± 0.25 mg TAE/g sample, 7.56 ± 0.27 mg TEAC/g sample, 13.59 ± 0.25 mg TEAC/g sample, and 10.90 ± 0.24 mg FeSO4/g sample, respectively. Compared with other extraction conditions, UAE with propylene glycol extract (PG-UAE) was significantlyhigher in TPC, TFC, TTC, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP response values than UAE with ethanol (EtOH-UAE), maceration with propylene glycol (PG-maceration), and maceration with ethanol (EtOH -maceration) (p < 0.05). Major bioactive compounds detected by LC-QQQ included chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and trigonelline. At higher concentrations starting from 5 mg/ml, PG-UAE extract showed higher cell viability than EtOH-UAE in both cytotoxicity and cellular antioxidant assays. The researcher expects that this new extraction technique developed in this work could produce a higher yield of bioactive compounds with higher biological activity. Therefore, they can be used as active ingredients in cosmetics (anti-aging products) and pharmaceutical applications (food supplements, treatment for oxidative stress-related diseases) with minimal use of chemicals and energy.