Analysis of COVID-19 Incidence and Severity Among Adults Vaccinated With 2-Dose mRNA COVID-19 or Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines With and Without Boosters in Singapore.JAMA Netw Open. 2022 08 01; 5(8):e2228900.JN
Assessing booster effectiveness of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine and inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine over longer time intervals and in response to any further SARS-CoV-2 variants is crucial in determining optimal COVID-19 vaccination strategies.
To determine levels of protection against severe COVID-19 and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by types and combinations of vaccine boosters in Singapore during the Omicron wave.
Design, Setting, and Participants
This cohort study included Singapore residents aged 30 years or more vaccinated with either at least 2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (ie, Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 or Moderna mRNA-1273) or inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (Sinovac CoronaVac or Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV) as of March 10, 2022. Individuals with a known SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to December 27, 2021, an infection on or before the date of their second vaccine dose, or with reinfection cases were excluded.
Two or 3 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2, Moderna mRNA-1273, Sinovac CoronaVac, or Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Notified infections from December 27, 2021, to March 10, 2022, adjusted for age, sex, race, housing status, and calendar days. Estimated booster effectiveness, defined as the relative incidence-rate reduction of severe disease (supplemental oxygen, intensive care, or death) or confirmed infection following 3-dose vaccination compared with 5 months after second mRNA dose, was determined using binomial regression.
Among 2 441 581 eligible individuals (1 279 047 [52.4%] women, 846 110 (34.7%) aged 60 years and older), there were 319 943 (13.1%) confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, of which 1513 (0.4%) were severe COVID-19 cases. mRNA booster effectiveness against confirmed infection 15 to 60 days after boosting was estimated to range from 31.7% to 41.3% for the 4 boosting combinations (homologous BNT162b2, homologous mRNA-1273, 2-dose BNT162b2/mRNA-1273 booster, and 2-dose mRNA-1273/BNT162b2 booster). Five months and more after boosting, estimated booster effectiveness against confirmed infection waned, ranging from -2.8% to 14.6%. Against severe COVID-19, estimated mRNA booster effectiveness was 87.4% (95% CI, 83.3%-90.5%) 15 to 60 days after boosting and 87.2% (95% CI, 84.2%-89.7%) 5 to 6 months after boosting, with no significant difference comparing vaccine combinations. Booster effectiveness against severe COVID-19 15 days to 330 days after 3-dose inactivated COVID-19 vaccination, regardless of combination, was estimated to be 69.6% (95% CI, 48.7%-81.9%).
Conclusions and Relevance
Booster mRNA vaccine protection against severe COVID-19 was estimated to be durable over 6 months. Three-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination provided greater protection than 2-dose but weaker protection compared with 3-dose mRNA.