Formation characteristics of disinfection byproducts from four different algal organic matter during chlorination and chloramination.Chemosphere. 2022 Dec; 308(Pt 1):136171.C
Algal organic matter (AOM) has become an important precursor of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in multiple drinking water sources. In this study, the formation of DBPs during chlorination and chloramination of AOMs from four algal species (Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Cyclotella sp.) under different conditions (disinfectant doses 4.0-8.0 mg/L as Cl2, pH 6.0-8.0, and bromide 0-1.0 mg/L) were simultaneously investigated. Some common and specific characteristics of DBP formation have also been identified. The yields of total DBPs from the four AOMs were 3.28 × 102-6.00 × 102 and 1.97 × 102-3.70 × 102 nmol/mg C during chlorination and chloramination, respectively. The proportions of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in total DBPs were approximately ≥50%. Increasing disinfectant doses or pH only enhanced the yields of trihalomethanes (THMs) during chlorination but enhanced the yields of THMs, HAAs and dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs) during chloramination. Increasing bromide concentrations enhanced THM yields but decreased HAA yields during chlorination and chloramination, in addition to the shift from chlorinated DBPs to brominated DBPs. The DHAN yields of the four AOMs slightly decreased with bromide levels during chlorination, whereas different AOMs showed different trends with bromide levels during chloramination. During chlorination, C. vulgaris and S. obliquus AOMs generated higher THM and DHAN yields (at 4.0-5.0 mg/L as Cl2) than the other AOMs. During chloramination, M. aeruginosa AOM generated higher THM and HAA yields than the other AOMs (at 0.1 mg/L bromide). Cyclotella sp. AOM had the highest THM-bromine substitution factors during chlorination and the highest DHAN-bromine substitution factors during both chlorination and chloramination (at 0.1 mg/L bromide).