Antibody and T-cellular response to COVID-19 booster vaccine in SARS-CoV-1 survivors.Clin Immunol. 2022 Nov; 244:109103.CI
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) survivors are more likely to produce a potent immune response to SARS-CoV-2 after booster vaccination. We assessed humoral and T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 in previously vaccinated SARS-CoV-1 survivors and naïve healthy individuals (NHIs) after a booster Ad5-nCoV dose. Boosted SARS-CoV-1 survivors had a high neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1 (WA1), Beta, and Delta but is limited to Omicron subvariants (BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/BA.5). Most boosted SARS-CoV-1 survivors had robust SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. While booster vaccination in NHIs elicited less or ineffective neutralization of WA1, Beta, and Delta, and none of them induced neutralizing antibodies against Omicron subvariants. However, they developed comparable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses compared to boosted SARS-CoV-1 survivors. These findings suggest that boosted Ad5-nCoV would not elicit effective neutralizing antibodies against Omicron subvariants in SARS-CoV-1 survivors and NHIs but induced comparable robust T cell responses. Achieving a high antibody titer in SARS-CoV-1 survivors and NHIs is desirable to generate broad neutralization.