First detailed case report of a pediatric patient with neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease diagnosed by NOTCH2NLC genetic testing.Brain Dev. 2023 Jan; 45(1):70-76.BD
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions in neuronal and other somatic cells. Skin biopsies are reportedly useful in diagnosing NIID, and the genetic cause of NIID was identified as a GGC repeat expansion in NOTCH2NLC in recent years. The number of adult patients diagnosed via genetic testing has increased; however, there have been no detailed reports of pediatric NIID cases with GGC expansions in NOTCH2NLC. This is the first detailed report of a pediatric patient showing various neurological symptoms from the age of 10 and was ultimately diagnosed with NIID via skin biopsy and triplet repeat primed polymerase chain reaction analyses.
This was an 18-year-old female who developed cyclic vomiting, distal dominant muscle weakness, and sustained miosis at 10 years. Nerve conduction studies revealed axonal degeneration, and her neuropathy had slowly progressed despite several rounds of high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. At 13 years, she had an acute encephalopathy-like episode. At 15 years, brain MRI revealed slightly high-intensity lesions on diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted imaging in the subcortical white matter of her frontal lobes that expanded over time. At 16 years, esophagography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and esophageal manometry revealed esophageal achalasia, and per-oral endoscopic myotomy was performed. At 18 years, we diagnosed her with NIID based on the findings of skin specimen analyses and a GGC repeat expansion in NOTCH2NLC.
NIID should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pediatric patients with various neurological symptoms.