Willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccines: Applying the health belief model.Res Social Adm Pharm. 2023 01; 19(1):95-101.RS
To date, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19. Vaccines are effective and safe strategies to control the pandemic.
To measure consumers' maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for COVID-19 vaccines in Jordan and to identify the predictors of WTP.
An online survey was used to collect data related to sociodemographic factors and constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM). The contingent valuation method using the payment card approach was used, whereby the respondents were asked to choose their maximum WTP value from a range of 5-200 Jordanian Dinar (JOD). The maximum WTP values were then categorized into several groups, and an ordered logistic model was used to generate adjusted odds ratios and estimate the significant predictors of maximum WTP.
A total of 3116 respondents completed the survey. More than half of the sample were not willing to pay out of pocket for the vaccine (57%). Among the respondents who were willing to pay any amount above zero, the mean maximum WTP was 28.1 JOD (39.63 USD), and the median WTP was 20 JOD (28.21 USD). The significant predictors of higher WTP values were being of younger age, higher income, being a healthcare provider, having one or more chronic diseases, previous history of receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine, having a family member/friend who has died from the COVID-19, lower perceived risk of the vaccine, higher perceived benefits of the vaccine, and having been recommended to get the vaccine.
It is recommended to continue providing the vaccine free of charge to increase its uptake. Educational campaigns should focus on refuting myths related to the vaccine and promoting the benefits of receiving the vaccine in slowing the spread of the pandemic, and improving the economy. Healthcare providers' recommendations have the potential to increase WTP for the vaccine.