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Willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccines: Applying the health belief model.
Res Social Adm Pharm. 2023 01; 19(1):95-101.RS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

To date, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19. Vaccines are effective and safe strategies to control the pandemic.

OBJECTIVE

To measure consumers' maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for COVID-19 vaccines in Jordan and to identify the predictors of WTP.

METHOD

An online survey was used to collect data related to sociodemographic factors and constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM). The contingent valuation method using the payment card approach was used, whereby the respondents were asked to choose their maximum WTP value from a range of 5-200 Jordanian Dinar (JOD). The maximum WTP values were then categorized into several groups, and an ordered logistic model was used to generate adjusted odds ratios and estimate the significant predictors of maximum WTP.

RESULTS

A total of 3116 respondents completed the survey. More than half of the sample were not willing to pay out of pocket for the vaccine (57%). Among the respondents who were willing to pay any amount above zero, the mean maximum WTP was 28.1 JOD (39.63 USD), and the median WTP was 20 JOD (28.21 USD). The significant predictors of higher WTP values were being of younger age, higher income, being a healthcare provider, having one or more chronic diseases, previous history of receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine, having a family member/friend who has died from the COVID-19, lower perceived risk of the vaccine, higher perceived benefits of the vaccine, and having been recommended to get the vaccine.

CONCLUSION

It is recommended to continue providing the vaccine free of charge to increase its uptake. Educational campaigns should focus on refuting myths related to the vaccine and promoting the benefits of receiving the vaccine in slowing the spread of the pandemic, and improving the economy. Healthcare providers' recommendations have the potential to increase WTP for the vaccine.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University, Irbid, 21163, P. O. BOX 566, Jordan. Electronic address: rasha.arabyat@yu.edu.jo.Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University, Irbid, 21163, P. O. BOX 566, Jordan; Department of Sociobehavioral and Administrative Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan.Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University, Irbid, 21163, P. O. BOX 566, Jordan.Applied Science Private University Amman, Jordan.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

36153237

Citation

Arabyat, Rasha M., et al. "Willingness to Pay for COVID-19 Vaccines: Applying the Health Belief Model." Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy : RSAP, vol. 19, no. 1, 2023, pp. 95-101.
Arabyat RM, Nusair MB, Al-Azzam SI, et al. Willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccines: Applying the health belief model. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2023;19(1):95-101.
Arabyat, R. M., Nusair, M. B., Al-Azzam, S. I., Amawi, H. A., & El-Hajji, F. D. (2023). Willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccines: Applying the health belief model. Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy : RSAP, 19(1), 95-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2022.09.003
Arabyat RM, et al. Willingness to Pay for COVID-19 Vaccines: Applying the Health Belief Model. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2023;19(1):95-101. PubMed PMID: 36153237.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccines: Applying the health belief model. AU - Arabyat,Rasha M, AU - Nusair,Mohammad B, AU - Al-Azzam,Sayer I, AU - Amawi,Haneen A, AU - El-Hajji,Feras Darwish, Y1 - 2022/09/13/ PY - 2022/04/27/received PY - 2022/08/19/revised PY - 2022/09/07/accepted PY - 2022/9/25/pubmed PY - 2022/12/1/medline PY - 2022/9/24/entrez KW - COVID-19 vaccine KW - Health Belief Model KW - Willingness to pay SP - 95 EP - 101 JF - Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP JO - Res Social Adm Pharm VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: To date, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19. Vaccines are effective and safe strategies to control the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To measure consumers' maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for COVID-19 vaccines in Jordan and to identify the predictors of WTP. METHOD: An online survey was used to collect data related to sociodemographic factors and constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM). The contingent valuation method using the payment card approach was used, whereby the respondents were asked to choose their maximum WTP value from a range of 5-200 Jordanian Dinar (JOD). The maximum WTP values were then categorized into several groups, and an ordered logistic model was used to generate adjusted odds ratios and estimate the significant predictors of maximum WTP. RESULTS: A total of 3116 respondents completed the survey. More than half of the sample were not willing to pay out of pocket for the vaccine (57%). Among the respondents who were willing to pay any amount above zero, the mean maximum WTP was 28.1 JOD (39.63 USD), and the median WTP was 20 JOD (28.21 USD). The significant predictors of higher WTP values were being of younger age, higher income, being a healthcare provider, having one or more chronic diseases, previous history of receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine, having a family member/friend who has died from the COVID-19, lower perceived risk of the vaccine, higher perceived benefits of the vaccine, and having been recommended to get the vaccine. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to continue providing the vaccine free of charge to increase its uptake. Educational campaigns should focus on refuting myths related to the vaccine and promoting the benefits of receiving the vaccine in slowing the spread of the pandemic, and improving the economy. Healthcare providers' recommendations have the potential to increase WTP for the vaccine. SN - 1934-8150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/36153237/Willingness_to_pay_for_COVID_19_vaccines:_Applying_the_health_belief_model_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -