2022 Taiwan Guidelines for Acute Treatment of Migraine.Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2022 Jun 30; 31(2):89-113.AN
The Taiwan Headache Society published its guidelines for acute migraine treatment in 2017. Since then, emerging drugs and treatment options have developed rapidly. The migraine-specific drugs gepants and ditans and several noninvasive neuromodulation devices have been approved for use in Europe and the United States. Although not all emerging drugs and treatment options have been approved for use in Taiwan, keeping pace with international trends and updating treatment guidelines are imperative. Therefore, the Treatment Guideline Subcommittee of the Taiwan Headache Society reviewed the quality of recent trials, evaluated the corresponding grade of evidence, and appraised the reported clinical efficacy to reach a new consensus. To ensure that the updated Taiwan guidelines are appropriate and feasible, the subcommittee also referred to the guidelines from the United States, Europe, Canada, and other countries concerning the main roles, recommendation levels, clinical efficacy, and adverse reactions of drugs for the acute migraine treatment. Several types of drugs are currently available for acute migraine treatment in Taiwan. These drugs can be categorized into migraine-specific and migraine-non-specific. Among them, migraine-specific triptans (oral or nasal spray formulations) and migraine-nonspecific acetaminophen and NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen) are highly recommended because they are supported by strong evidence and demonstrate high efficacy. Prochlorperazine injection has been upgraded to a highly recommended level because of the rich clinical experience for this treatment. Ergotamine/caffeine remains a second-line drug because of its lower specificity and efficacy compared with triptans. High-dose aspirin was downgraded to rescue treatment because of potential gastrointestinal side effects. Although evidence supports the combination of oral tramadol and acetaminophen, this combination should be used as a rescue treatment due to concerns about dependence. Evidence supporting the use of intravenous tramadol or morphine is insufficient; therefore, their use is not recommended. As for non-pharmacological approaches, there are only limited controlled data. The choice of treatment for acute migraine attacks should follow the concept of "stratified care." For mild to moderate migraine attacks, oral NSAIDs are the first choice, with combination analgesics, intravenous/intramuscular NSAIDs as alternatives. For moderate to severe attacks, oral or nasal spray triptans and ergotamine/caffeine compounds are recommended and should be administered in the early stage of migraine attacks. Antiemetics can be used as supplements to alleviate nausea and vomiting. Other emerging migraine-specific drugs, such as gepants or ditans, may also have a role in the future. Notably, a combination of a triptan and a NSAID yielded a better efficacy compared with either therapy alone. Parenteral steroids and fluid supply are the first-line treatment for status migrainosus. Acetaminophen is suitable for mild to moderate migraine attacks and remains the first choice for children and pregnant women. To prevent medication overuse headache, the use of acute treatment should be limited to a maximum of 2 days per week. Key words: acute migraine treatment, evidence-based medicine, treatment guidelines, triptans, ergotamine, neuromodulation.