[Late forced emigration without perspectives: Alfred Hauptmann and Adolf Wallenberg].Nervenarzt. 2022 Oct; 93(Suppl 1):42-51.N
Archival documents and further biographical testimonies reveal that dismissal and expulsion on racist grounds also affected neurologists in leading clinical positions and at an advanced age. Alfred Hauptmann (1881-1948), full professor for neurology and psychiatry in Halle/Saale, member of the Leopoldina and discoverer of phenobarbitone treatment for epilepsy, emigrated first to Switzerland and then to the USA after the anti-Jewish pogroms in November 1938 and a subsequent "protective custody" imposed on him at the age of 58 years. Adolf Wallenberg (1862-1949), a self-made neurologist, described the syndrome later named after him in 1895. As a clinician he carried out research in the field of neuroanatomy until the National Socialists ousted him from his workplace in Danzig. At the age of 77 years, he emigrated to the USA via Great Britain, but did not manage to settle down again in his profession. For both physicians, neurology was their purpose in life, they felt patriotically attached to their home country and saw no future for themselves after their late forced emigration. Hauptmann is today commemorated by an award for experimental and clinical research on epilepsy, Wallenberg by the German Neurological Society award for outstanding achievements in the fields of cerebrovascular diseases, brain circulation and brain metabolism.