[Radicalization and "forced emigration": the dismissal and expulsion of neuroscientists and neuropsychiatrists from Vienna].Nervenarzt. 2022 Oct; 93(Suppl 1):80-91.N
Austria's so-called annexation (Anschluss) to Germany from March 1938 was followed by the ousting of "Jewish" doctors out of Vienna which happened faster and with more brutality than in the "Old Reich". According to National Socialist (NS) criteria, 92% of the neurologists at Vienna University were understood as being "non-Aryan". Victims of these expulsions were prominent figures, such as the head of the Neurological Institute Otto Marburg (1874-1949), a renowned multiple sclerosis researcher, and his pupil Ern(e)st Spiegel (1895-1985), a pioneer of stereotaxis. Similar to Berlin, nonuniversity departments of neurology were run by doctors who served as professors at the university, e.g., Josef Gerstmann (1878-1967) and his assistant Ilya Mark Scheinker (1902-1954). While these four continued their careers in the USA, the founder of neuroradiology Arthur Schüller (1874-1957) was able to flee to Australia. Hans Hoff (1897-1969) was part of the small group of returning emigrants, who in 1950 was appointed as the chair of psychiatry and neurology. The fate of the neurologists Ernst Sträussler (1872-1959) and Erwin Stransky (1877-1962) appears to be exceptional: both were dismissed and banned from teaching and practicing, but being married to "Aryan" wives spared them further persecution. Overall, within a short period of time neurology in Vienna lost a large number of its highly respected clinicians and researchers. Some of them refined their ideas and innovations abroad after 1945.