[Spatial Distribution and Sources of Heavy Metals in Soil of a Typical Lead-Zinc Mining Area, Yangshuo].Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2022 Oct 08; 43(10):4545-4555.HJ
Taking a typical lead-zinc mining area in Yangshuo county, Guangxi as the research object, the contents of 10 metal elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb) in the surface soil of Sidihe River basin in Yangshuo were analyzed and determined. Pearson correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), positive definite matrix factorization (PMF), and other methods were comprehensively used to quantitatively analyze their contributions and identify pollution sources. In total, 168 surface soil samples were collected across the study area. The mean concentrations of Zn, Cd, Hg, and Pb in the soils were higher than the National Environmental Quality Standards for Soils in China. The mean contents of Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were higher than their corresponding local background values by approximately 1.01, 5.50, 3.29, 9.11, and 10.67 times, respectively, indicating that heavy metals have been enriched in topsoil. The Igeo showed that the major pollutant element in the soils was Hg, followed by Pb, Zn, and Mn. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis showed that the sources of metal pollution in surface soil in the study area were complex and mainly from human activities. Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, As, and Pb were mainly derived from mining activities; Hg, Cr, and Ni were controlled by soil parent material sources; and Mn and Cd were mainly derived from mining activities and agricultural activities. PMF model analysis results showed that the metal pollution sources in the surface soil were jointly affected by these three sources. Mining activities, natural sources, and a mixed source of mining activities and agricultural activities were the main sources of heavy metal pollution in the soils, accounting for 58.0%, 13.5%, and 28.6% of the total heavy metal accumulation, respectively. Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sb, Hg, and Pb were derived mainly from mining activities. Cr, Ni, and Hg were mainly attributed to natural sources, such as soil parent materials and rainfall erosion (44.6%, 23.2%, and 21.0%, respectively), and Mn and Cd were associated with a mixed source of mining activities and agricultural activities (75.4% and 70.4%).