Feasibility of Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) alone as a screening method for antinuclear antibody in connective diseases in India's sub-Himalayan region.Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2022 Oct-Dec; 65(4):873-878.IJ
For the management of connective tissue disorders (CTDs), antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing is essential, both from diagnostic and prognostic points of view. Usually, patterns obtained by ANA-IIF testing correlates to specific autoantibodies as obtained from the test for ENA (by LIA/ELISA, etc.). But to apply these data from western studies, we may need validation in the local population like our subjects in sub-Himalayan (Garhwal region) area where CTDs are common. Also, suppose ANA-IFA pattern's correlation is reliably known in our population, it can minimize the cost of managing CTDs by limiting ENA testing, which is 10 times costlier than ANA-IIF. Hence, this study was undertaken to know the specific autoantibody targets (ENA by LIA) against ANA-IIF patterns in our local population.
Materials and Methods
In this retrospective cross-sectional work, serum samples of CTDs were tested for ANA by IIF (Euroimmune AG) and ENA by LIA (Euroline ANA-3G) continuously for 36 months. The manufacturer's kit insert was followed, and results were analyzed applying appropriate statistical methods.
Major ANA-IIF patterns were found to be associated with specific autoantibodies, for example, Nuclear homogenous with dsDNA, nucleosomes, histones; speckled pattern with nRNP/Sm, Sm, SSA/Ro-52, SSB; nucleolar pattern with Scl-70, Pm-Scl 100 and centromere pattern with CENP-B. Anticytoplasmic (ACA) are found to be linked with some ANA negative (by IIF) samples, emphasizing the need for careful observation for ACA especially where ANA is not found.
In most subjects, specific ENA targets correlated well with ANA-IIF patterns, implying effective cost minimization in CTD management. Similar future prospective studies (with clinical data) can provide a database and reference for our population.