What's Old and New in Tuberculosis Vaccines for Children.J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2022 Oct 31; 11(Supplement_3):S110-S116.JP
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of global child mortality. Until the turn of the 21st century, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was the only vaccine to prevent TB. The pediatric TB vaccine pipeline has advanced in the past decade to include the evaluation of novel whole cell vaccines to replace infant BCG and investigation of subunit and whole cell vaccines to boost TB immunity during adolescence. We describe the history of BCG, current TB vaccine candidates in clinical trials, and the challenges and opportunities for future TB vaccine research in children. Children are a critical target population for TB vaccines, and expansion of the pediatric TB vaccine pipeline is urgently needed to end the TB pandemic.