Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of chromium in the soil invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta).Sci Total Environ. 2023 Feb 01; 858(Pt 2):159868.ST
Chromium emissions led to increased concentrations in soil, where it can affect soil organisms to relevant levels. With the aim of better understanding the effects of Cr throughout time, its toxicokinetics-toxicodynamics (TKTD) were evaluated in the soil model organism Enchytraeus crypticus to assess the development of internal concentrations and consequent toxic effects. To achieve this goal, organisms were exposed in LUFA 2.2 soil spiked with increasing CrCl3 concentrations. During the 21-day exposure period, survival, internal concentrations, and reproduction were evaluated at several time points up to 21 days. Uptake and elimination rate constants were 0.0044 kg soil/kg organism/day and 0.023 per day, respectively. Internal Cr concentrations increased with time, generally reaching equilibrium within 14 days with an estimated LC50inter (based on internal metal concentrations) of 57.7 mg Cr/kg body DW. Internal Cr concentrations were regulated by the organisms up to exposure to 360 mg Cr/kg soil DW, where the elimination rate was highest, but at 546 mg Cr/kg soil DW the animals were no longer able to eliminate Cr, and the internal concentrations were well above the estimated LC50inter. At day 21, exposure to 546 mg Cr/kg soil DW significantly reduced survival by 23 %, while reproduction EC50 was 344 mg Cr/kg soil DW. This study highlights the advantages of using a TKTD approach to understand the development of internal metal concentrations in time and relate it to the phenotypical effects observed. Toxicity is better understood when also taking into account time and not just exposure concentration alone.